During the battle, a Jew struck him so that his shield fell from his hand and Ali lost his shield. In need of a substitute, he picked up a door and used it to defend himself. The door was said to be so heavy that it took eight men to replace it on its hinges. The Apostle revived their his followers faith by the example of Ali , on whom he bestowed the surname of "the Lion of God" Asadullah.
The Jews speedily met with Muhammad to discuss the terms of surrender. Muhammad agreed to these conditions and did not take any of the property of these two forts. Historians have given different descriptions about the incident of killing Marhab. But Ibn Hisham's  prophetic biography deny that Muhammad ibn Maslama killed Marhab according to the order of Muhammad before the mission of Ali. Marhab called out: "Khaybar knows well that I am Marhab, whose weapon is sharp, a warrior tested.
Sometimes I thrust with spear; sometimes I strike with sword, when lions advance in burning rage". In sahih Muslim , the verses has been narrated like this: Khaibar knows certainly that I am Marhab, A fully armed and well-tried valorous warrior hero , when war comes spreading its flames. I am the one whose mother named him Haidar lion , And am like a lion of the forest with a terror-striking countenance. I give my opponents the measure of sandara in exchange for sa' goblet i.
The two soldiers struck at each other, and after the second blow, Ali cleaved through Marhab's helmet, splitting his skull and landing his sword in his opponent's teeth. The narration related to Muhammad bin Maslama from Ibn Hisham's prophetic biography is below:.
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Marhab the Jew came out from their fort carrying his weapons and saying: Khaybar knows that I am Marhab, An experienced warrior armed from head to foot, Now piercing, now slashing, As when lions advance in their rage. The hardened warrior gives way before my onslaught; My hima The sacred territory of an idol or a sanctuary and so any place that a man is bound to protect from violation cannot be approached. With these words he challenged all to single combat and Ka'b b. Malik answered him thus: Khaybar knows that I am Ka'b, The smoother of difficulties, bold and dour.
When war is stirred up another follows. I carry a sharp sword that glitters like lightning- We will tread you down till the strong are humbled; We will make you pay till the spoil is divided- In the hand of a warrior sans reproche. The apostle said, 'Who will deal with this fellow? The apostle told him to go and prayed Allah to help him. When they approached the one the other an old tree with soft wood lay between them and they began to hide behind it. Each took shelter from the other. When one hid behind the tree the other slashed at it with his sword so that the intervening branches were cut away and they came face to face.
The tree remained bereft of its branches like a man standing upright. Then Marhab attacked Muhammad b.
Maslama and struck him. He took the blow on his shield and the sword bit into it and remained fast. Muhammad bin Maslama then gave Marhab a fatal wound. Although, many of the sources quoted that, Muhammad bin Maslama also fought bravely at Khaybar as well as Ali ibn abi Talib and also killed a number of well-known Jewish warriors. As part of the agreement, the Jews of Khaybar were to evacuate the area, and surrender their wealth. The Muslims would cease warfare and not hurt any of the Jews. After the agreement, some Jews approached Muhammad with a request to continue to cultivate their orchards and remain in the oasis.
In return, they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Fadak offered to be "treated leniently" in return for surrender. A treaty similar to that of Khaybar was drawn with Fadak as well. The companions informed Muhammad of Safiyya's good family status, and requested him to accept her as his wife so as to preserve her prestige and status.
Muhammad acceded to the request, and freed and married her. Kenana ibn al-Rabi, when asked about the treasure they brought with them at the time of leaving Medina, denied having any such treasure. He was told that in case the treasure could be found hidden, he would face death-penalty for his false promise. Kenana agreed to this. A Jew told Muhammad that he had seen Al-Rabi near a certain ruin every morning. When the ruin was excavated, it was found to contain some of the treasure. Kenana was executed as a result. According to several Muslim traditions, a Jewish woman, Zeynab bint Al-Harith , attempted to poison Muhammad to avenge her slain relatives.
She poisoned a piece of lamb that she cooked for Muhammad and his companions, putting the most poison into Muhammad's favorite part, the shoulder. This assassination attempt failed because Muhammad recognised that the lamb was poisoned and spat it out, but one companion ate the meat and died.
The victory in Khaybar greatly raised the status of Muhammad among his followers and local Bedouin tribes, who, seeing his power, swore allegiance to Muhammad and converted to Islam. The captured booty and weapons strengthened his army, and he captured Mecca just 18 months after Khaybar. According to mainstream Sunni opinion, the battle is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari , in which Muhammad is reported to have said "Tomorrow I will give the flag to a man with whose leadership Allah will grant the Muslim victory.
Having lost his shield, Ali is said to have lifted both of the doors of the fortress from its hinges, climbed into the moat and held them up to make a bridge whereby the attackers gained access to the redoubt. The door was so heavy that forty men were required to put it back in place. This story is the basis for the Shi'ites viewing Ali as the prototype of heroes. On one occasion, Muslim soldiers, without Muhammad's opinion and permission, killed and cooked a score of donkeys, which had escaped from a farm. The incident led Muhammad to forbid to Muslims the meat of horses, mules, and donkeys, unless consumption was forced by necessity.
The Jews surrendered when, after a month and a half of the siege, all but two fortresses were captured by the Muslims. Muslim scholars suggest that capturing Khaibar had been a divine promise implied in the Quran verse below:. The event is mentioned in many Sunni Hadith collections. The Muslim scholar Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri mentions that the hadith below regarding Amir's accidental death is related to Khaibar:.
It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Salama. He heard the tradition from his father who said By God, we had stayed there only three nights when we set out to Khaibar with the Messenger of Allah. On the way my uncle, Amir, began to recite the following rajaz verses for the people:. The Messenger of Allah said: Who is this?
He said: May thy God forgive thee! The narrator said: Whenever the Messenger of Allah asked forgiveness for a particular person, he was sure to embrace martyrdom. Umar b.
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Khattab who was riding on his camel called out: Prophet of Allah, I wish you had allowed us to benefit from Amir. Salama continued: When we reached Khaibar, its king named Marhab advanced brandishing his sword and chanting:. They exchanged blows. Marbab's sword struck the shield of 'Amir who bent forward to attack his opponent from below, but his sword recoiled upon him and cut the main artery: in his forearm which caused his death. Salama said: I came out and heard some people among the Companions of the Holy Prophet may peace be upon him as saying: Amir's deed has gone waste; he has killed himself.
Amir's deed has gone waste. The Messenger said: Who passed this remark? I said: Some of your Companions. He said: "He who has passed that remark has told a lie, for 'Amir there is a double reward. Sahih Muslim , . Allah's Apostle offered the Fajr prayer when it was still dark, then he rode and said, 'Allah Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. When we approach near to a nation, the most unfortunate is the morning of those who have been warned. Safiya was taken by Dihya Al-Kalbi and later she belonged to Allah's Apostle go who married her and her Mahr was her manumission.
Sahih al-Bukhari , Some versions of the chant are:. Khaybar is also the name of a television series that began broadcasting in the Middle East during July Ramadan that year. Set in the Battle of Khaybar, it is a drama depicting the relations between the Jews of Khaybar and the Jewish and Arab communities of Medina at that time. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Khaybar disambiguation. This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Campaigns of Muhammad. Main article: Jewish community of Khaybar. See also: Banu Nadir. See also: Treaty of Hudaybiyya. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. Uttar Pradesh: Idarah Qasmiyyah Deoband. II, part 12 , p. II, pg.
VII, pg. II, p. Guillaume, p. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. The arches were decorated with gold and green-tinted gypsum and their timber tie beams were replaced with brass. A quarter of the stained glass windows also were carefully renewed so as to preserve their original Abbasid and Fatimid designs. On July 20, , King Abdullah I was shot three times by a Palestinian gunman as he entered the mosque, killing him.
His grandson Prince Hussein , was at his side and was also hit, though a medal he was wearing on his chest deflected the bullet. Rohan was a member of an evangelical Christian sect known as the Worldwide Church of God. Rohan was subsequently hospitalized in a mental institution. Etzion believed that blowing up the two mosques would cause a spiritual awakening in Israel, and would solve all the problems of the Jewish people.
They also hoped the Third Temple of Jerusalem would be built on the location of the mosque. After Sharon and the Likud Party members left, a demonstration erupted and Palestinians on the grounds of the Haram al-Sharif began throwing stones and other projectiles at Israeli riot police. Police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at the crowd, injuring 24 people.
The visit sparked a five-year uprising by the Palestinians, commonly referred to as the al-Aqsa Intifada , though some commentators, citing subsequent speeches by PA officials, particularly Imad Falouji and Arafat himself, claim that the Intifada had been planned months in advance, as early as July upon Yasser Arafat 's return from Camp David talks.
When a group of Palestinians left the mosque after Friday prayers Jumu'ah, they hurled stones at the police. The police then stormed the mosque compound, firing both live ammunition and rubber bullets at the group of Palestinians, killing four and wounding about Previous media reports of 'storming Al-Aqsa' referred to the Haram al-Sharif compound rather than the Al-Aqsa mosque itself.
Nothing remains of the original dome built by Abd al-Malik. The present-day dome was built by az-Zahir and consists of wood plated with lead enamelwork. In , the aluminum outer covering was replaced with lead to match the original design by az-Zahir. Al-Aqsa's dome is one of the few domes to be built in front of the mihrab during the Umayyad and Abbasid periods, the others being the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus and the Great Mosque of Sousse During the burning, the paintings were assumed to be irreparably lost, but were completely reconstructed using the trateggio technique, a method that uses fine vertical lines to distinguish reconstructed areas from original ones.
The facade of the mosque was built in CE on the instructions of the Fatimid caliph al-Mustansir Billah. It was crowned with a balustrade consisting of arcades and small columns. The Crusaders damaged the facade, but it was restored and renovated by the Ayyubids.
Battle of Khaybar
One addition was the covering of the facade with tiles. The outer arches added by the Mamluks follow the same general design. The entrance to the mosque is through the facade's central arch. The porch is located at the top of [ dubious — discuss ] the facade. The central bays of the porch were built by the Knights Templar during the First Crusade , [ dubious — discuss ] but Saladin's nephew al-Mu'azzam Isa ordered the construction of the porch itself in The al-Aqsa Mosque has seven aisles of hypostyle naves with several additional small halls to the west and east of the southern section of the building.
About a fourth of them were restored in The mosque's interior is supported by 45 columns , 33 of which are white marble and 12 of stone. The remaining four rows are better proportioned. The capitals of the columns are of four different kinds: those in the central aisle are heavy and primitively designed, while those under the dome are of the Corinthian order ,  and made from Italian white marble. The capitals in the eastern aisle are of a heavy basket-shaped design and those east and west of the dome are also basket-shaped, but smaller and better proportioned.
The columns and piers are connected by an architectural rave, which consists of beams of roughly squared timber enclosed in a wooden casing. A great portion of the mosque is covered with whitewash , but the drum of the dome and the walls immediately beneath it are decorated with mosaics and marble. Some paintings by an Italian artist were introduced when repairs were undertaken at the mosque after an earthquake ravaged the mosque in The minbar " pulpit " of the mosque was built by a craftsman named Akhtarini from Aleppo on the orders of the Zengid sultan Nur ad-Din.
It was intended to be a gift for the mosque when Nur ad-Din would capture Jerusalem from the Crusaders and took six years to build — Nur ad-Din died and the Crusaders still controlled Jerusalem, but in , Saladin captured the city and the minbar was installed. The structure was made of ivory and carefully crafted wood. Arabic calligraphy , geometrical and floral designs were inscribed in the woodwork. The mosque's main ablution fountain, known as al-Kas "the Cup" , is located north of the mosque between it and the Dome of the Rock.
It is used by worshipers to perform wudu , a ritual washing of the hands, arms, legs, feet, and face before entry into the mosque.
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It was first built in by the Umayyads, but in —28 Governor Tankiz enlarged it to accommodate more worshipers. Although originally supplied with water from Solomon's Pools near Bethlehem , it currently receives water from pipes connected to Jerusalem's water supply. The Fountain of Qasim Pasha , built by the Ottomans in and located north of the mosque on the platform of the Dome of the Rock, was used by worshipers for ablution and for drinking until the s. Today, it stands as a monumental structure.
The mosque is believed to be the second house of prayer constructed after the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. Post-Rashidun-era Islamic scholars traditionally identified the mosque as the site referred to in the sura Quranic chapter al-Isra "the Night Journey". This specific verse in the Quran cemented the significant religious importance of al-Aqsa in Islam.
There was a significant Muslims group disputed this connection, identifying "the farthest place of prayer" as a reference to a site in the heavens. According to the Quran and Islamic traditions, Al-Aqsa Mosque is the place from which Muhammad went on a night journey al-isra during which he rode on Buraq , who took him from Mecca to al-Aqsa.
The historical significance of the al-Aqsa Mosque in Islam is further emphasized by the fact that Muslims turned towards al-Aqsa when they prayed for a period of 16 or 17 months after migration to Medina in ; it thus became the qibla "direction" that Muslims faced for prayer. The altering of the qibla was precisely the reason the Rashidun caliph Umar, despite identifying the mosque which Muhammad used to ascend to Heaven upon his arrival at the Noble Sanctuary in , neither prayed facing it nor built any structure upon it.
This was because the significance of that particular spot on the Noble Sanctuary was superseded in Islamic jurisprudence by the Kaaba in Mecca after the change of the qibla towards that site. According to early Quranic interpreters and what is generally accepted as Islamic tradition, in CE Umar, upon entering a conquered Jerusalem, consulted with Ka'ab al-Ahbar —a Jewish convert to Islam who came with him from Medina —as to where the best spot would be to build a mosque.
Al-Ahbar suggested to him that it should be behind the Rock " Umar then prayed at the spot where it was believed that Muhammad had prayed before his night journey, reciting the Quranic sura Sad. Because of the holiness of Noble Sanctuary itself—being a place where David and Solomon had prayed—Umar constructed a small prayer house in the southern corner of its platform, taking care to avoid allowing the Rock to come between the mosque and the direction of Kaaba so that Muslims would face only Mecca when they prayed.
Jerusalem is recognized as a sacred site in Islam. Though the Quran does not mention Jerusalem by name, it has been understood by Islamic scholars since the earliest times that many passages in the Quran refer to Jerusalem. Some academics attribute the holiness of Jerusalem to the rise and expansion of a certain type of literary genre, known as al-Fadhail or history of cities. The Fadhail of Jerusalem inspired Muslims, especially during the Umayyad period, to embellish the sanctity of the city beyond its status in the holy texts.
Later medieval scripts, as well as modern-day political tracts, tend to classify al-Aqsa Mosque as the third holiest site in Islam. After Israel's victory in that war, Israel transferred the control of the mosque and the northern Noble Sanctuary to the Islamic waqf trust, who are independent of the Israeli government. However, Israeli Security Forces are permitted to patrol and conduct searches within the perimeter of the mosque.
After the arson attack, the waqf employed architects, technicians and craftsmen in a committee that carry out regular maintenance operations. The Islamic Movement in Israel and the waqf have attempted to increase Muslim control of the Temple Mount as a way of countering Israeli policies and the escalating presence of Israeli security forces around the site since the Second Intifada. Some activities included refurbishing abandoned structures and renovating. Israel claims sovereignty over the mosque along with all of the Temple Mount Noble Sanctuary , but Palestinians hold the custodianship of the site through the Islamic waqf.
During the negotiations at the Camp David Summit , Palestinians demanded complete ownership of the mosque and other Islamic holy sites in East Jerusalem. Muslim residents of Israel and Palestinians living in East Jerusalem are normally allowed to enter the Temple Mount and pray at the al-Aqsa Mosque without restrictions. At times restrictions have prevented all men under 50 and women under 45 from entering, but married men over 45 are allowed.
Sometimes the restrictions are enforced on the occasion of Friday prayers,   other times they are over an extended period of time. The Israeli government states that the restrictions are in place for security reasons. That procedure ended when the Second Intifada began. Fifteen years later, negotiation between Israel and Jordan might result in allowing visitors to enter once again.
Several excavations outside the Temple Mount took place following the War. In , Israeli authorities commenced intensive excavations outside the walls next to the mosque on the southern and western sides. Ismail Haniya —then Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas leader—called on Palestinians to unite to protest the excavations, while Fatah said they would end their ceasefire with Israel. Gates 1. Jaffa 2. Zion 3. Dung 4. Golden 5. Lions 6.
Herod 7. Damascus 8. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Al-Aqsa Intifada. Which mosque was first built on the surface of the earth? Main article: Holiest sites in Islam. Main article: Excavations at the Temple Mount. Islam portal. While the exact early history of this term is unclear, we know that it only became common in Ottoman times, when administrative order was established over all matters pertaining to the organization of the Muslim faith and the supervision of the holy places, for which the Ottomans took financial and architectural responsibility.
Atlas Travel and Tourist Agency. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 29 June BBC News. Al Habtoor Group. This sacredness is not exclusive to the physical structures allocated for prayer, like the Dome of the Rock or Al-Qibly Mosque the mosque with the large silver dome " Mahdi Abdul Hadi Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs ; Tim Marshall: "Many people believe that the mosque depicted is called the Al-Aqsa; however, a visit to one of Palestine's most eminent intellectuals, Mahdi F. Abdul Hadi, clarified the issue. His offices are a treasure trove of old photographs, documents, and symbols.
He was kind enough to spend several hours with me. Simon and Schuster. Jewish Culture and History. Goss, V. Architecture of Herod, the Great Builder. Baker Academic. Israel Exploration Journal. In Zeidan Kafafi; Robert Schick eds. Jerusalem before Islam. Liphschitz, G. Biger, G. Bonani and W. Israel Hayom. Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 December Palestine under the Moslems , pp. Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 13 July Saqi Books. Time Magazine. Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 3 July February Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved 29 March The Atlantic Monthly Online.
September Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 16 April Lost skills revived to replicate a medieval minbar. The Australian. Access date: 8 July The Temple Esplanade. Archnet Digital Library. Colby 6 August SUNY Press. Arab World Books. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World.
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