We don't write about our lives. And of course heterosexuals are definitely not going to go looking for us to write about or talk about us. Frederick the Great. NYRB Classics. Hysterical: Anna Freud's Story. She Writes Press. College Press Publishing Company. The Emperor Galba committed homosexual acts with other adults as well as with adolescents. Suarez 3 octombrie Fleming 29 noiembrie Daily Express. Windy City Times. London Evening Standard. Edition Q. The Sexual Labyrinth of Nikolai Gogol. Mann 15 octombrie Viking Adult. Keith Haring: Heaven and Hell ed.
Hatje Cantz Publishers. Digital Journal. Halterman 4 decembrie Pickover 15 septembrie William Morrow Paperbacks. Mann 30 octombrie Michael Gerli, ed. Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia. Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages. Rupke 1 iunie Alexander von Humboldt: A Metabiography. University of Chicago Press.
Channel 4. I don't feel man, I don't feel woman — that's where the androgyny comes from. New York Daily News. The Daily Beast. Rauschenberg, who was better known in than Warhol was, and Jasper Johns were both prototypical pop artists as well as gay men; they also were lovers. Latin Times. Martin's Griffin. The Sunday Times. Look Both Ways: Bisexual Politics. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Graham, Jean-Michel Kantor Naming infinity: a true story of religious mysticism and mathematical creativity.
Harvard University Press. The police soon learned of Kolmogorov and Alexandrov's homosexual bond, and they used that knowledge to obtain the behavior that they wished. Johnson Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. Federico Garcia Lorca: A Life. An Interview with Audre Lorde.
American Poetry Review. Lloyd Moote Laonici Chalcondylae Smith 1 martie The Independent. Vincente Minnelli: Hollywood's Dark Dreamer ed. Martin's Press. He was openly gay in New York — we were able to document names of companions and stories from Dorothy Parker. But when he came to Hollywood, I think he made the decision to repress that part of himself or to become bisexual. Evenimentul Zilei. Victorian Studies. Calabria 20 decembrie Suny Series, Western Esoteric Traditions.
State University of New York Press. Joan Acocella, ed. The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky. University of Illinois Press. Gunther Scuhlmann, ed. Robert Elsie, ed. Hungarian Cultural Studies. Ellenberger 17 septembrie The Hollywood Reporter. Favonius people also cherish their independence fiercely; these qualities can make them fickle minded and flexible at the same time.
They are quick studies by nature and almost always curious to learn new things. Favonius is typically symbolized by a young plant shoot blown by the wind or a sword. This symbol combines the two motifs. The curved line intersecting the straight line also represents the balancing of contrasting forces. This Palace is adaptable, flexible, diplomatic, and temperate. It occurs halfway through the Palace cycle, and relates to all crossroads and compromises. Sun in: Palace indicates someone who is musical, artistic, creative, intuitive and psychic.
They have good business and financial skills and are good communicators. They are good learners, knowledgeable, curious and flexible in their approach. They can be vulnerable but are good survivors. However, they can also be impatient, restless and fickle. Dinus represents the powers of heat and battle and is a title of Mars.
It has the symbol of a leaf-decked triumphal gate. Mars was known in ancient time as the God of agriculture and spring. A farmer plows and harvests his crop through thick and thin of seasons with single-minded devotion; similarly, the native belonging to this Palace work their way to a focused goal.
Enduring every obstacle, they manage to reap their fruits of labor. The success produced by these people is long termed, though often it comes later in life. As a result, many a time than not, they tend to gain inflictions on the way. This Palace advises them to focus around the same determination of purpose to spiritual enlightenment.
People born in this Palace are also quick witted, artistic, intelligent, pleasant and popular. They are usually very good in communications or jobs that require emotional or physical strength. The symbol of Dinus combines its traditional symbol of the triumphal arch with its meaning, "Two-Branched". Dinus relates to the concept of single-minded fixation on a goal, and the painful sacrifice required to meeting that goal. It is the incomplete mind which desires completion.
Sun in: Dinus indicates a person who is purposeful, goal oriented, ambitious, competitive, opinionated, forceful and determined. They are persistent and patient, but quick witted and intelligent. They are pleasant and popular and are good communicators, but they can also be abrasive.
They usually only achieve success later in life and can be jealous and envious of others. Urania Your-ae-nee-a November December 1: People born under Urania are extremely popular in their friendships. The ability to go along nicely with people, combined with diligence towards their work, makes them highly successful, since they manage to create a sense of balance between their relationships. They are very loving and loyal to their loved ones. They also love variety and travel frequently; or they set up their career in a distant location and far from home. Urania people also have a mystic side.
Uranias symbol is a staff which may be interpreted as a magician's wand or walking stick. Philosophy, devotion, and travel relate to this Palace. Urania transforms Aress narrow-sighted obsession into a broader vision of reverence and awe. Sun in: Urania indicates someone who has balanced friendships and relationships and is co-operative, loving, popular, and successful. They are good leaders and organizers and are focused on their goals, but they are also good at sharing.
They are sensual, and love variety and travel. They are faithful but jealous. Kennedy Jr. Parca Park-a December 2- December Parca creates the vibration of a crone, a chief one, or someone or something supremely glorious and superior due to age and experience. Parca gives the karmic pattern in our life through which we have the opportunity to unlock the reservoir of our personal powers, and emerge truly victorious as heroes.
Parca people have hidden occult powers. It is also the Palace of summoning courage and moving forward in life. Like the eldest member of the family, a Parca born has to take on the responsibility and power of his loved ones, wealth and business. Sometimes, they posses low self-esteem, and tend to seem critical.
They can invoke the power of this Palace and emerge as wise, experienced and respected as the eldest member of the family. Parca remembers past life deaths and can have phobias connected to death and dying. Parca being the last Palace in Scorpio brings all subconscious fears to the surface. This means there is a tremendous potential to move pass fear. Parca is usually symbolized by a round amulet or earring, denoting authority.
Seniority and expertise are indicated. The three lines connecting the inner and outer circles of this symbol represent the past, the present, and the future. Sun in: Parca indicates a person with a sense of seniority and superiority, who is protective, responsible and a leader of their family.
They are wise, psychic, and are courageous and inventive.
Never Split the Difference
They may experience financial ups and downs and can be reclusive and secretive. They also enjoy helping the meek and have a psychological and charitable approach to life. Hecate Hek a Tay December December The symbol of Hecate is a bunch of roots tied together. This Palace signifies everything of basic nature, where motion is finite and limited. Hecate indicates the ideas of foundation, from the very bottom. Hecate people are direct, and prefer to start everything from its core.
They are lovers of truth, and are ardent researchers. Hecate as a Goddess is the Goddess of magic and destruction, thus this Palace can accordingly create many reversals in life. But more often than not, Hecate people with their hard work, shrewdness and ambition, either manage to sidetrack the calamity, or overcome it, emerging as very successful.
Hecate is inside the constellation Sagittarius. This is curious to some because Hecate was strongly equated with the constellation Scorpio. The reason for this is due to the stinger of the Scorpion falling directly inside this Palace in astronomy. Hecate 's symbol is the Root or Center.
This Palace also includes the spiritual center. The symbol is a stylization of Hecate 's traditional emblem: a bundle of roots. This bundle of roots represents not only Hecate 's urge to seek the essential nature of all things, but also the practice of making medicinal herbs.
Sun in: Hecate indicates a person who has a passionate desire to get to the truth and is good at investigation and research. They are direct, ardent and truthful and are shrewd and ambitious, but they can feel trapped and bound by circumstances. They can also suffer minor reversals of fortune due to Hecates influence. Ceto bestows a proud independent and commanding nature. Just like the manner in which water purifies us after taking baths, the natives born in this Palace have a constant urge to improve on themselves and situations in life.
They keep on winning battles one after another, and hence it makes one invincible. Their main asset is a huge reservoir of philosophical and emotional depth, through which they take easy command and precedence over others. This Palace is known for declaration of wars. Ceto people move towards their goals with awesome fearlessness and aggressiveness. Yet many people born in this Palace remain passive, or confused towards their goals in career and education. Once the confusion clears, they become a symbol of strength. This Palace delights in beauty and fearlessness. Its symbol resembles the seashell upon which Venus emerges from the waters of life.
It also resembles Cetos emblem, the fan. The fan has multiple implications. It can be used to fan a fire to keep passion alive , to cool off to survive adversity. Sun in: Ceto indicates a person who is proud, independent, and invincible with strong influence and power over others. They are ambitious and fearless, with a strong urge for constant improvement. They have deep emotions and are philosophical, but they can also be confrontational, angry and harshly spoken.
Mel Gibson, J. Natura is introspective and penetrative and is concerned with intensiveness, the results of the latter being more permanent than the former. The native born in its influence are highly virtuous. They have profound stamina, patience and durability. Natura can grant victory to the person seeking its blessings; therefore, the subjects of this constellation, when proven worthy by their integrity and persistence of the purpose, are granted success in time.
The natives are natural leaders, and are highly respected for their virtuous qualities and unbending ethics. They have the power mostly dormant to penetrate deep in spirituality, and if they go towards their path properly, this Palace can produce invincible spiritual leaders as well. Natura exemplifies truth, willpower, firmness, and virtue. Its symbol combines a pyramid representing the crystallization of power , two elephant tusks and the rising Sun its ruling planet. Sun in: Natura people are enduring, invincible, patient, righteous and responsible.
They have great integrity and are sincere, committed to ideals, ambitious and good leaders. They usually have success later in life and have great stamina and constancy, but they can also be rigid and unbending. Orlando Bloom, Naomi Judd, Sade. Apollo A-po-lo January February Apollo enables to link people together by connecting them to their appropriate paths in life. The natives of this Palace are all about listening and learning.
This constellation signifies eternal quest of knowledge. Apollo people are restless. They constantly involve themselves in conversations, or listening sessions to collect information. A person born under this Sign is either an ardent student, or a well-versed teacher. They can be excellent counselors, owing to their art of listening and giving advice based on their vast knowledge. Apollo, although the God of the Sun is ruled by the Moon. It relates to listening to others as well as to one's inner voice. The three smaller circles denote the "three uneven footsteps" associated with Apollo.
The lines which connect the smaller circles to the larger one evoke the connection between speakers and listeners. Sun in: Apollo indicates good listening and learning and often on a quest for knowledge and information. People born in this Palace are intellectual and wise, and make good teachers and counselors and are good at conversation, but they can also be gossipy and restless. They are interested in the past and their heritage and are extensive travelers. They can suffer troubles and disappointment early in life yet become prosperous later in life.
Muses builds upon the connections of Apollo and makes them more practical. The natives born in this Palace are either inheritors of great wealth, or accumulate it during the course of their lifetime. The symbols of this constellation are musical instruments. Accordingly, one can rightly decipher the musical inclination of Muses people. The subjects are natural leaders as well.
This Palace also provides many of them with fame or at least a good reputation. Muses is represented by a drum. This bold and confident Palace relates to music and dance, as well as to the larger rhythms of life. The shape of this symbol reflects the rhomboid pattern of the stars of this mansion. It is divided into eight triangles, representing the muses who preside over this Palace.
Sun in: Muses indicates a person who possesses material wealth and property. They enjoy the idea of recognition and are good leaders, but they can be greedy and self absorbed. They are musical and good at dancing and like to travel. They can also experience marital difficulties due to Mars being the Lord of this Palace. Aegeon Ae-gee-on February March 3: This Palace is about healing the human condition spiritually and physically.
Aegeon is the Palace owned by the north node. As the symbol of the Palace indicates, natives born in this Palace are natural healers. Apart from medicine and surgery as professions, they are well versed in unconventional methods of curing others as well. The people born in the Palace are inclined towards philosophy, astrology, mysticism, metaphysics and psychology.
These people are usually very moody. Sometimes they share extraordinary good rapport with people. At other times, they turn reclusive.
Their nature often confuses people with rather simplistic thinking. They are good at professions of mathematician, scientific research, accountant, and medicine. They are also known to be highly opinionated, and usually not tolerant of new ideas or opinions of others. They are also extremely stubborn. This may be one of the reasons they often suffer setback in relationships and marriage. Aegeon is typically denoted by an empty circle.
Emanating from the circle are four lightning-bolts, signifying the subtle electrical force present in all things. There are also smaller circles portraying electrons circumnavigating an atomic nucleus. This symbol also resembles a turtle, the carrier of the world, relating to the transpersonal nature of this often eccentric, reclusive, scientific, and mystical Palace.
Sun in: Aegeon indicates a person who is a good healer, doctor, or astrologer and often is mystical, meditative, philosophical, scientific and a visionary. However, they can also be opinionated and stubborn. Chimera rises up our spiritual aspiration in life and takes us out of the domain of selfish behavior.
This is a transformational Palace where people will sacrifice themselves for a higher cause, to make a difference in the world. Chimera is the Palace, which inspires the native born in it to reach for higher goals in life. The people born here are extremely idealistic, and very passionate about their cause.
They are also usually non-conformists and fairly rebellious. They tend to acquire eccentric qualities, which give them a lot of trouble in their life. They have excellent oratory skills, which they use effectively to spread their convictions. Chimera is traditionally represented by a man with two faces, symbolizing the moment of death, when one exists both in this world and the next.
It is also often denoted by a sword, representing severance. This symbol combines these two motifs. Sun in: Chimera indicates a person who is passionate and transformational, but a little extreme and indulgent. They are idealists and non-conformists and are good influencers of others and they can also be fearful, nervous, cynical and eccentric. Often their life can be full of sadness and problems. Phorcus Por-kus March March Phorcus, the God of the depths of the deep waters, rules Phorcus.
Phorcus grants growth and prosperity in a broad way, benefiting the ones close to them. A person born in this Palace is a leader, and follows a virtuous path. Phorcus provides the attributes similar to Chimera, but with a milder approach. The people in this Palace are simple in conveying their ideals. Generally, the natives are of cheerful disposition, a protective streak about the ones they love. They have self-sacrificing tendencies.
They communicate softly, and are very private. They love seclusion, can be devoted to higher consciousness and can have psychic abilities. Phorcus relates to another aspect of death, in which consciousness sinks deep into the abyss. This Palace is associated with the deep unconscious and the life force residing within. Its deity Phorcus "the God of the Depths", depicted here as a serpentine line ascending a vertical axis. Sun in: Phorcus indicates a person with good discipline and speaking and writing skills, who is cheerful, generous, self-sacrificing and very intuitive.
They generally have good wealth and inheritance and have a happy home life; but they like solitude and seclusion and can be lazy. This Palace creates abundance through providing proper nourishment. Hermaia indicates a journey, and may in fact represent our final journey from this life to the next, being the last and final Palace. The last constellation of all the Palaces is Hermaia. This is the Palace where the Moon finishes her journey.
Hermaia bids the Moon goodbye and assures a safe journey ahead. The same symbolism can be used for people born in this star constellation; they embark from this life to the next with ease and comfort. Ruled by the God Mercury, the subjects of Hermaia are responsible people who take care of others. They nurture and nourish people around them, and are loving and protective. The result is that this Palace grants them prosperity, and bids them farewell at the time of their death to reap the karmic rewards in their next life or in the afterlife.
Hermaia , as the final Palace, synthesizes and absorbs the mysteries of the previous Palace. This knowledge is portrayed here by an all seeing eye. This symbol also contains two fish, representing the Sign of Pisces and the soul's journey after death. Sun in: Hermaia indicates a person who is sweet, caring, responsible and tends to enjoy caring for others.
They are sociable and love humanity and society, and are protective and nurturing. They are devoted to loved ones and are spiritual, communicative, artistic and creative. Disappointments in their early life create compassion and forgiveness towards others, consequently, they are most likely to reap karmic rewards in their next life or the afterlife. Asterian Astrology. Some of the Stars Palaces do bind together the 12 signs. Example, there is a Vesta Aries and a Vesta Taurus. Jade Luna, Jim Morrison moon , Candace Bergen, Audrey Hepburn Vesta Vest-a May May Vesta is also known as the "star of fire" and is related to a commander, fighter, foster mother, luster, power, physical and creative force.
Morgan Freeman, Marylin Monroe, Heidi Klum Prometheus Pro-me-thee-us June 07 to June Prometheus borne like to roam about in forests and nature, they love life and seek knowledge or excitement. Madonna, Barak Obama Persephone per-sef-o-nee August August Persephone is the cause of brightness, light and rules over the world of the dead, but from a positive ancestral place called the Elysian Fields whereas Aidoneus deals with the dark side of the dead-Tartarus.
Parca Park-a December 2- December Parca creates the vibration of a crone, a chief one, or someone or something supremely glorious and superior due to age and experience. The 27 signs of Asterian astrology overlay and modify the traditional Sun signs of astrology. As a result, the Asterian signs and the traditional Sun signs interact and influence each other. Much has already been written about the traditional signs in a multitude of astrology books. Therefore, they will be covered only in brief here, for the purpose of a quick reference.
April 13 — May Aries is the first sign of the zodiac. It is a Fire sign and is ruled by Mars. Its symbol is the ram. They are creative and are great at starting new projects. They can be quite competitive and dynamic in their presentation. As a result, Aries often gravitates toward sports, the military, or any executive position. Nevertheless, they tend not to be overly physically aggressive, preferring to fight with words and ideas. They bounce back from disappointments and nothing seems to be able to keep an Aries down for long. Always ready to start again, those born in Aries like to lead, and often do a good job when in positions of authority.
They can be willful, impulsive, and headstrong; however, at their core they are largely compassionate and loving, which can make them effective healers. Often, tact is an acquired taste for an Aries. Those born here can come off as opinionated and critical, but this approach is most often employed with the improvement of others in mind. They can best progress spiritually when they use their minds and energy in the search for ultimate truth. May 15 — June Taurus is the second sign of the zodiac. It is an Earth sign and is ruled by Venus. Its symbol is the bull.
However, this disease theory may also be found among populations of more advanced cultures. But even in one given area there are many local varieties regarding the concepts relative to the nature of the soul, the causes and agents of soul loss, the destination of the lost soul, and the curability of the disease. These two notions are combined in the theory that man bears within himself a kind of duplicate, a ghost-soul whose presence in the body is a prerequisite to normal life, but that is able to leave the body tem- porarily and to wander about, especially during sleep.
In the words of Frazer, "the soul of a sleeper is supposed to wander away from his body and actually to visit the places, see the persons, and perform the acts of which he dreams. It may get caught and detained by evil spirits during its wanderings, and may also leave the body in a waking state, especially after a sudden fright.
Finally, it may also be forcibly removed from the body by ghosts, demons, or sorcerers. Logically, then, the treatment of the disease consists in finding, bringing back, and restoring the lost soul. However, the techniques, as well as the disease theory, vary widely. Sometimes the lost soul remains in the physical world, either far removed from or close to the patient; sometimes it wanders into the world of the dead or the spirits.
The latter concept is found pre- dominantly in Siberia, where a cure can be performed only by a shaman, that is, a man, who, during his long initiation, has been introduced into the world of the spirits and is thus able to function as a mediator between that world and the world of the living. Russian ethnologists have gathered many remarkable accounts of shamanism. One of them, Ksenofontov, states:. When a human being has lost his soul.
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Shamans contend to he able. They must often make a bargain with the spirits who have stolen the souL propitiate them and bring them gifts.
Sometimes they have to fight the spirits. Once they have recaptured the lost souL they bring it back and restore it to the deprived body. In other parts of the world, the healer need not go so far away, nor must he work himself into ecstasy. The technique may consist simply of con- jurations and other magical operations.
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This is the case with the Quechua Indians of Peru. We are indebted to Dr. Federico Sal y Rosas for a detailed study on the soul-loss disease among that population. The Quechua word Jani designates the disease as well as the soul and the healing cure. The follow- ing is a summary of Sal y Rosas's account:.
The Que chua Indians believe that the soul or perhaps part of it can leave the body, either spontaneously or through being forced. The Susto disease can occur in two ways: either through fright caused, for instance, by thunder, the sight of a bull, a snake, and so on, or because of malevolent influences, not fol- lowing upon fright the latter being called "Susto without Susto".
Among the malevolent forces that can produce the abduction of the soul, the influence of the earth is considered supreme. The Quechuas show a great fear of certain slopes and caves, and especially of the old Incan ruins. Whether the Susto occurs following a fright or not, in both cases the power to be propitiated is the earth. How can the disease be designated as Susto when it was not preceded by a fright? It may be diagnosed as such when an individual loses weight and energy and becomes irritable, has disturbed sleep and nightmares, and especially when he falls into a state of physical and mental depression called Michko.
The matter is then clarified by a curandera. This woman will rub the body of the patient from head to toe with a live guinea pig in such a way that the animal dies at the end of the operation. Then she will skin it and read her oracular diagnosis in the animal's blood, which is made to drip into a bowl of water, and from the lesions she discovers in the animal's organs.
The healing ceremony begins with an operation called the Shokma, which is also performed by a curandera. The mixture is then collected and handed over to a male healer, a curiosa, who now performs the essential parts of the rites. The curiosa comes to the patient's house at midnight, wraps the mixture in a piece of the patient's clothing, and prepares him to receive the absent spirit. He then leaves the patient, who remains alone in the darkened house with the door open; he walks away, using the mixture to make a white line along the ground to enable the soul to find its way back; he goes either to the spot where the patient experienced his initial fright or to some dreaded place, such as an old grave or the ruin of an Incan fortress.
There, using the mixture, he makes a cross on the ground, places himself at the center of the cross, and offers what remains of the mixture as a propitiatory sacrifice to the earth. He then solemnly calls the lost soul, repeating his call five times. At the end of the fifth invocation, he must perceive a special noise that indicates the presence of the lost soul before he can return to the house of the patient, carefully following the white track.
The patient must be asleep; the healer cautiously lifts the blanket over the patient's feet, this being the place where the soul supposedly re-enters the body accompanied by a special rustle that is audible to the healer. At this moment, the patient is expected to dream that his soul returns to his body in the shape of a tame animal. The healer now leaves the house, either through another door or by walking backward.
The patient's family is not allowed to return until the following morning, and in most cases, when they return, they find the patient cured. Sal y Rosas compiled statistics on patients, mostly children or adolescents afflicted with Susto, who underwent a medical examination. It was found that these patients belonged to two distinct groups: The first consisted of 64 emotion- ally disturbed individuals suffering from anxiety, depression, hysterical symp- toms.
The second group included patients afflicted with physical diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, postdysentery colitis, malnutri- tion, anemia, and so on, all further complicated by emotional disturbances. A remarkable fact is the frequently successful outcome of the healing pro- cedure. With praiseworthy honesty. Sal y Rosas writes: "I have personally observed many cases of typical or even atypical Susto abruptly improve or re- cover completely after one or two sessions of Jani. Such a success achieved by a humble rural curiosa or by a peasant woman, with their primitive and savage psychotherapy, contrasts with the failure of graduated physicians- among them the author of this article-in the cure of Susto.
Among all primitive disease theories probably none is stranger to us than the idea of soul loss. Nothing is further from our principles of treatment than the restoration of a lost soul to a patient. And yet, if we ignore the cultural element and seek the roots of facts, we may find a common ground between those primitive concepts and ours. Do we not say that our mental patients are "alienated," "estranged" from themselves, that their ego is impoverished or destroyed?
Could not the therapist who gives psycho- therapy to a severely deteriorated schizophrenic patient by trying to es- tablish a contact with the remaining healthy parts of the personality and to reconstruct the ego be considered the modern successor of those shamans who set out to follow the tracks of a lost soul, trace it into the world of spirits, and fight against the malignant demons detaining it, and bring it back to the world of the living?
Intrusion and Extraction of the Disease-Object This theory maintains that disease is caused by the presence in the body of a harmful foreign substance, such as a piece of bone, a pebble, a splinter of wood, or a small animal. Certain peoples believe that disease is caused not by the object itself but by a special disease-essence contained in the object. Sometimes, the harmful disease-object is believed to have been shot into the body by a sorcerer. This disease theory is widespread in America excepting the eastern Eskimos , very common in eastern Siberia, Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and in several other parts of the world.
It has also left many traces in European popular medicine and folklore. A striking fact is the connection between this disease theory and a peculiar kind of treatment: the medicine man uses his mouth to suck out the disease-object. Other methods, such as massage, are much less frequent. Yet, there is little doubt that these cures are often successful. It has also been pointed out that among certain populations the disease-object is of such a nature that a patient could not possibly believe that it had been extracted from his body.
We face here a situation that frequently occurs in anthropology. In order to understand the meaning of a custom or belief, one must consider it within the sociological structure of the community. Similarly, we cannot understand this kind of therapy without knowing the natives' attitudes and beliefs in regard to the disease, the medicine man, and the treatment. To clarify this point, we will briefly summarize a document published by Franz Boas in It is an autobiographical fragment, related to him by a Kwakiutl shaman and published in the original Kwakiutl, with an English translation.
Giving-Potlatches-to-the-World, relates how he doubts the powers of the shamans. Because of his acquaintance with two of them, he manages to watch a therapeutic performance and closely observes their healing techniques. The ceremony is being conducted by the shaman, Making-Alive, who is assisted by four other shamans and several song leaders, in the presence of a number of men. After various rites. Making-Alive feels the patient's chest and wets his mouth; he then sucks the place where he has localized the sickness. After a while, he takes from his mouth something looking like a bloody worm.
At the end of the ceremony, Making-Alive presses his stomach. This is the vocation. The narrator is then invited to become a shaman; he has the choice of accepting or refusing. He decides to accept. The four-year curriculum of that school included memorizing a number of magic songs pertaining to various kinds of diseases, the technique of "feeling" the disease that is. Our student learns how the shamans, before the healing ceremony. The narrator performs his first cure on a young man. Food-Owner, grandson of a chief.
The patient had dreamed that he was cured by the new shaman candi- date; this dream is sufficient indication. He uses the method of the bloody earthworm. It is a big success for the candidate. The patient was cured "because he strongly believed in his dream about me. While on a visit to the nearby tribe of the Koskimo. Qaselid is invited to be a spectator at a therapeutic ceremony performed for the daughter of a chief, Woman-Made-to-Invite.
Qaselid notices that the Koskimo shamans use a dif- ferent technique; instead of extracting the disease in the form of a bloody earth- worm. At this point, the story takes an unexpected turn: the Koskimo shamans fail to cure Woman-Made-to-Invite. Qaselid requests and receives permission to try his method. The Koskimo shamans are ashamed. The Koskimo shamans invite Qaselid to a secret conference with them that takes place in a cave at the foot of a hill, amidst the trees of the forest. One of the shamans. The disease, he says, is a man; when they capture his soul, the disease dies and the patient is cured; therefore, they have nothing to show to the people.
They urge Qaselid to explain, in turn, why it is that the disease sticks to his hands. But Qaselid refuses to speak, saying that he is still only a novice shaman and that he is not allowed to speak until he has completed his four-year apprenticeship. The Koskimo fail to get him to speak, even though they send their daughters to him in the hope of seducing him. After returning to his village. Qaselid is challenged by an old shaman of considerable repute to a competition in curing several patients.
Qaselid sees that the old man uses another kind of trick: he pretends to incorporate the extracted disease into his head ring or into his rattle. Among the patients is a woman who declares that the old shaman has always unsuccessfully tried to cure her. Qaselid tries the method of the bloody earthworm, and the woman claims to be cured.
In defiance of the old shaman, Qaselid sings his sacred song and distributes two hundred dollars among the spectators. The old shaman is upset and sends his daughter to request a conference with Qaselid. The next morning, the old shaman and his family have disappeared, and he is said to have gone "crazy" soon thereafter. Qaselid continues to study the tricks of other shamans, while adding to his own therapeutic successes with the method of the bloody earthworm. At the end of the narrative, it is clear that he finds it more and more difficult to recognize the "real" shamans from the quacks.
He is sure only of one who is a "real" shaman because he does not accept payment from his patients and because he has never been seen laughing; all others "pretend to be shamans. Setting apart the possible element of mythomania in the narrator, the story of that man who became a healer in spite of himself may help us to better understand the process of such a treatment. It is obvious that the action of sucking out the disease-object is but a part of an elaborate ceremony that includes other rites such as songs and magic gestures, and requires the help of assistants the beat-drummers.
The therapeutic session is carefully prepared and well structured. It takes place in the presence of men, women. But this ceremony, in turn, can become efficient only within a psychologi- cal and sociological framework that includes: 1 The healer's faith in his own abilities, even if he knows that part of the technique depends on some kind of quackery.
The success and reputation of a healer increase. The shaman is a member of an organization that has its training, its schools, its strict rules, its meeting places, its secret agents, as well as rivalries with other similar organizations. To us, the thought of treating diseases by extracting and demonstrating a disease-object is as unthinkable as that of the recapture of a lost soul. The psychiatrist can show no such concrete object to his patient; but if we think of the meaning of the "transference neurosis," we could find some similarity to the process of the materialization of the disease.
The neurosis is replaced by a "transference neurosis," the nature and origin of which are demonstrated to the patient and consequently cured. The Ancestry of Dynamic Psychotherapy Possession and Exorcism According to this disease theory, the illness is due to evil spmts that have penetrated the patient's body and "taken possession" of it.
As a form of illness, possession is widespread, although it is not universal. It seems to be unknown among the Negritos of the Malay Peninsula, the Pygmies of the Philippines, the Australians, and others. It is not very common on the American continent. Its center of diffusion seems to have been in western Asia. Given such a disease theory, at least three methods can be-and in- deed have been-devised. The first consists in trying to expel the spirit mechanically, through bleeding, beating, or whipping the patient, or by means of noises and smells.
The second consists in transferring the spirit into the body of another being, usually an animal a method that can be associated with exorcism. The third-and by far the most frequently applied-method is exorcism. Exorcism has been one of the foremost healing procedures in the Mediterranean area and is still in use in several countries; it is of particular interest to us because it is one of the roots from which, historically speaking, modern dynamic psychotherapy has evolved.
Possession and exorcism have been the object of extensive studies, among which we can list a classic book by Oesterreich, which contains a great deal of carefully analyzed material. An individual suddenly seems to lose his identity to become another person. His physiognomy changes and shows a striking resemblance to the individual of whom he is. With an altered voice, he pronounces words corresponding to the personality of the new individual. Not infrequently he becomes able to perform movements of astonishing amplitude and force.
Possession ordinarily occurs in fits of varying frequency, duration, and intensity. There are two different types of possession, the somnambulic and the lucid. The individual in somnambulic possession suddenly loses con- sciousness of his self and speaks with the "I" of the supposed intruder; after regaining consciousness, he remembers nothing of what "the other one" has said or done.
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In cases of lucid possession, the individual remains constantly aware of his self, but feels "a spirit within his own spirit," strug- gles against it, but cannot prevent it from speaking at times. Catholic theology, incidentally, reserved the word possession for the somnambulic form and called the lucid form obsession, a word that has been adopted by psychiatry, though with another meaning.
A second important distinction is that which exists between spontaneous and artificial possession. Spontaneous possession occurs without or against the will of the subject; it is a specific mental condition from which the patient seeks relief with the help of the exorcist. Artificial possession is not a disease; it is a mental technique practiced voluntarily by certain individuals to achieve specific goals.
The pythonesses of Delphi in ancient Greece, the Siberian shamans of today, and the spiritists in our Western civilization, all cultivate artificial types of possession in which the fit starts at will and ends spontaneously. A third basic distinction is that which exists between overt and latent possession. Possession, whether somnambulic or lucid, is overt when the possessing spirit speaks spontaneously through the mouth of the possessed individual.
It is latent when the patient is unaware of it; he may suffer from mental disease, or neurotic or physical disturbances for months and years, never suspecting that his troubles stem from an evil spirit. In such cases the exorcist's first task is to make the possession manifest by compel- ling the evil spirit to speak; only then can the exorcism be performed.
The cure is ordinarily more easily obtained than with cases of overt possession. The procedure used to compel the evil spirit to manifest itself could be com- pared to what we call transference neurosis, though a rather dramatic and short-lived one: its effect is to bring forth an abreaction and healing of previous neurotic disturbances. Exorcism is the exact counterpart of possession and a well-structured type of psychotherapy.
Its basic characteristics are the following: The exorcist does not, ordinarily, speak in his own name, but in the name of a higher being. He must have absolute confidence in this higher being and in his own powers, as well as in the reality of the possession and of the possessing spirit. He addresses the intruder in a solemn way on behalf of the higher being whom he represents. He dispenses encouragement to the pos- sessed individual and saves his threats and admonitions for the intruder. The exorcist's preparation for his task is long and difficult, often including prayer and fasting.
The exorcism should, whenever possible, take place in a sacred spot, in a structured environment, and in the presence of wit- nesses, while at the same time avoiding crowds of the curious. The exorcist must induce the intruder to speak, and after lengthy discussions, a bargain may sometimes take place. Exorcism is a struggle between the exorcist and the intruding spirit-often a long, difficult, and desperate struggle that may continue for days, weeks, months, or even years before a complete victory can be achieved. Not infrequently does the exorcist meet with defeat; moreover, he is in danger himself of becoming infested with the very spirit he has just expelled from the patient.
In Japan it often took on the aspect of possession by an animal, mostly the fox, which plays a considerable role in Japanese superstition and folk- lore. The following is a short account of the case of Kitsune-Tsuki pos- session by the fox , as described by a German physician, Von Baelz. An irascible and stubborn seventeen-year-old woman was recovering from severe typhoid fever.
Female relatives were around her bed, sitting or rather kneeling according to the Japanese custom. Someone mentioned that a fox had been seen slipping into the house in the dusk; that was something ominous. The patient hearing this, felt a shattering throughout her body and became possessed. The fox had entered into her and talked several times a day from within her body. He soon acted as her master, upbraiding and tyrannizing the poor young woman. After a few weeks, a reputed exorcist of the Nichiren sect was called and pronounced his exorcisms, but without success.
The fox declared sarcastically that he was too clever to be taken in by such a trick. However, he was ready to leave the starving, sick body voluntarily, provided someone would give him a rich meal. How was that to be done? On a certain day at 4 o'clock someone had to go to a Fox Temple, about 12 kilometers away, and bring two pots of rice prepared in a certain way, roasted bean-cakes, many roasted mice and raw vegetables, that is. Then the fox would leave the patient at exactly the same time. And so it happened.
Exactly at 4 o'clock. This is an instance of spontaneous, lucid, overt possession by an animal spirit. We must consider the cultural and social background of the patient. Traditional Japanese superstition holds that the fox is endowed with super- natural powers; he is said to be able to take any shape at wiii, to serve those who use him to protect and avenge themselves, and to possess other individuals against their will.
According to Kiyoshi Nozaki, Kitsune-Tsuki is at present restricted to certain regions and to lower-class women, usually nervous, hypersensitive persons who grow up in a superstitious environ- ment and were eyewitness to similar cases. The priests of the Nichiren sect were reputed to be the best exorcists perhaps because of their own sincere belief in the fox and in his powers. As in many other instances of exorcism, the bargain here is also inherent in the procedure of expelling the possessing spirit: the fox agrees to withdraw, but not without obtaining some com- pensation.
Possession by an ancestor spirit exists in Madagascar in a ceremonial form, the Tromba cult. But it may happen that some spectators spontaneously fall into possession, and this may be the beginning of a col- lective psychosis. Spontaneous possession also exists in Madagascar under another form, the Bilo, whose special kind of healing will be mentioned later.
The Tromba may be compared to the Haitian voodoo cult, in which the possessing spirits, or Loa, are often thought to be the spirits of ancient heroes or of voodoo deities. But here, too, ritual possession is sometimes the starting point of spontaneous possession of a morbid character. Possession by a god is a characteristic feature of certain religions. Years ago, Von Baelz described, in Japan, the pilgrimage at Minobu, the chief temple of the Nichiren sect, where pilgrims sat for hours praying before the gigantic statues of ferocious-looking gods, ceaselessly repeating the same invocations, swaying their bodies back and forth until some of them suddenly saw the statue's eyes come to life and gaze at them.
At that moment, they felt a serpent or tiger entering their bodies, they fell into convulsive fits, and were thus ready for exorcism. These are instances of artificial, voluntary possession; but here, too, suggestible spectators could be seized by involuntary, spontaneous possession. Other strange accounts of possession by Japanese gods have been made by Percival Lowell, who described this ritual possession as a means of maintaining a living relation- ship with the mythical protectors of the nation. Demoniac possession has been a frequent occurrence for many centuries in the Middle East and in Europe, and it is characteristic that its symptoms and the rites of exorcism are much the same among Jews, Christians, and Moham- medans.
In Ethiopia and Egypt a more differentiated form is that of the Zar or possession by the Djinns, a manifestation that will be discussed later. In the Middle East and in Europe the clinical manifestations of demoniac possession can be threefold: The first is severe mental illness, usually schizophrenia, which is molded by the pressure of belief and tradition into the shape of permanent possession. This has been well documented by Kriss and Kriss-Heinrich in their description of Greek sanctuaries and places of pilgrimage.
Gerasimos on the island of Cephalonia, the authors saw chronic and severe mental patients who had been confined there for years. Their hands and feet were in chains and they were in a state of great motor and verbal agitation. When a religious ritual was performed in their presence, their agitation increased and they proffered blasphemies and obscenities which is to be understood as a desperate struggle for power between the authority of the Church and the will of the patients.
The most genuine mental patient was pressured into playing the role of his illness in accordance with a pattern established by tradition and belief around him. In the words of Kriss and Kriss-Heinrich:. This may be explained in that these patients have, in their youth, been im- pregnated with firm notions of what insanity is like, with the result that, when they themselves fall prey to mental illness, these notions then become a living reality.
Whether through spontaneous remission or through the effect of suggestion, quite a few of these patients did recover, and they experienced this recovery as a result of the Church's victory over the "power of darkness. The demon, having become manifest, can then be expelled by a second exorcism that at the same time frees the patient from his illness. Knotz, an Austrian physician who practiced at the beginning of this century in Bosnia at a time when scientific medicine was still almost nonexistent in that part of the world, related how every year, on the day of St.
John the Baptist, crowds of pilgrims made their way to an old Franciscan chapel where the Fathers spent the entire evening hearing their confessions. The Fathers were thus able to heal hysterical women whom official medicine could not have helped. The same kind of exorcism was practiced by Father Gassner around , and its historical importance will be shown in Chapter 2. The third form, overt spontaneous possession, is now considered to be a more or less severe form of hysterical neurosis. It is, at the present time, not infrequent in some eastern Mediterranean regions.
Hartocollis, who visited Cephalonia in 3, gave a description of such cases and of the exorcism in which several features seem noteworthy. This manifestation can become so severe that some patients must be tied down for the duration of the exorcism. It is explained by the islanders as the rage of the demon, who anticipates his expulsion.
In modern language this would be called a resistance and short transference neurosis. The inhabitants of Cephalonia also claim that the moment the demon is expelled a branch will fall in a mysterious way or a church window will break inexplicably, which is also ascribed to the ex- pelled demon's rage. The more nasty and powerful the demon, the more likely he is to demonstrate his rage in such a manner. When the patient has been cured, he does not leave the island without presenting a gift to the monastery; it is, in Janet's words, "an act of termination," and it also en- hances the patient's self-esteem.
The history of the Western world during the past twenty centuries abounds with stories of possession-either individual or collective, some- times in epidemic form-and with stories of exorcism. Roskoff2S has shown that the manifestation of possession as well as that of witch-hunting gradually disappeared, largely because of the influence of the Enlightenment, which dispelled belief in the devil, so that even religious circles ascribed less and less importance to him.
It is no wonder then that the last manifesta- tions of possession and exorcism are to be found in those settings that, for one reason or another, were opposed to the spirit of the Enlightenment: first, among traditionalists such as Father Gassner of whom we will speak in Chapter 2 ; then among certain Romanticists-Justinus Kerner, for instance, who remained intrigued by such manifestations; third, among the pietists, who violently opposed the rationalist spirit of the Enlightenment; to them, the powers of darkness were a living reality that Christians have to face and fight at every moment of their existence.
The case of Gottliebin Dittus and the Reverend Blumhardt is a typical example of possession and exorcism, patterned exactly on the model of those performed in the early Christian Church. It took place, however, in the middle of the nineteenth century-and was thus an instance of primitive healing in modern times and in a modern setting. Moreover, it is an exceptionally well-documented occurrence that has been the object of much study, from both the psychiatric and the religious points of view. This celebrated exorcism took place in the small village of Mottlingen, Wiirttemberg, during and , shortly after Blumhardt had been appointed Lutheran pastor there.
We will first give a summary of the pos- session and exorcism as related by Blumhardt in the official report he sent to his church authorities. Gottliebin Dittus, twenty-eight years of age, had lost both parents in her child- hood and was now living with three older siblings, all unmarried.
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B1umhardt's first impression of her at a casual encounter was unfavorable: He found some- thing repulsive about her. In late April Blumhardt was told that Gottliebin was seeing visions of a woman who had died two years previously and who was holding a child in her arms; he was also told that the house in which Gottliebin lived with her siblings was haunted. Neighbors could hear strange and terrifying noises at night. One such night, the country physician and several witnesses remained in the house and confirmed the rumors.
Blumhardt was called to the scene, where the young woman had Jain unconscious for one entire day. On his advice, she was taken to stay with her cousin. The house ceased to be haunted, but the symptoms of possession, among other violent convulsions, appeared in Gottliebin.
During one of Blumhardt's visits, her expression and voice changed and she began speaking with the voice of the dead woman. Blumhardt never doubted that he was facing the powers of darkness and decided that he would not eschew the struggle. He came repeatedly to see Gottliebin, whose symptoms became increasingly worse. She was soon possessed by three demons, then by seven and fourteen.
They finally came by the hundreds and the thousands, proffering the worst blasphemies through her mouth. Allegedly pushed by the demons. Gottliebin gave blows to those who were near, but never to Blumhardt. The latter never once indulged in any ritual; his weapon, in accordance with the word of the Gospel, consisted in prayer and fasting. One day in February , Gottliebin reported that during her most recent fit of loss of consciousness, her soul had flown around the earth and seen the demons causing an earthquake in some faraway country that, from her description, Blumhardt thought to be the West Indies.
A few days later, the news of this catastrophe reached the village. Around the same time, Gottliebin began to vomit sand, pieces of glass, nails, and other objects. She was also losing enormous amounts of blood. Among the spirits who spoke through her mouth, many claimed to be the demons' victims and asked Blumhardt's permission to rest in his house or else in the church, to which he agreed after much hesitation, on the condition however that Jesus was to grant his permission first.
Gottliebin was now beginning to feel Blumhardt's influence and to accept his orders. The final crisis occurred at Christmas in The demons tried one last and des- perate assault. Not content with torturing Gottliebin, they now also attacked her brother and her sister Katharina; the brother's ordeal was soon over, and he recovered quickly; the demons also seemed to have lost interest in Gottliebin.
Katharina, however, who had never before been troubled by them, now became their plaything and acted in much the same way as had Gottliebin in her worst moments. Finally, on December The power of darkness was broken. Unfortunately, little is known about the background of Gottliebin Dittus. Blumhardt's report states that she grew up in a deeply religious family that was at the same time very superstitious. She told Blumhardt that shortly after her birth, she had been stolen twice by an invisible spirit who had dropped her by the door when her frightened mother invoked the name of Jesus.
This seems rather extraordinary, but at that time the belief that newborn infants could be stolen and exchanged by fairies, goblins, or devils was widespread in many rural areas of Europe. Gottliebin's possession and cure might thus be considered as an expression of the cultural conflict between the Church and superstition. The background of Johann Christoph Blumhardt is much better known. According to his biographers, he came from a needy, exceedingly pious home. A diligent student, he studied theology and worked in several parishes, during which time he wrote profusely on the history of Christian missions and other related subjects.
In July , at the age of thirty-three, he was appointed pastor at Mottlin- gen and married in September of that year.