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Right after this comes the recitative that sentences Hidallan. The melodrama then ends with a long chorus sung by the bards in praise of Comala. The chorus is divided into a solo part, made up of hendecasyllables verging on the pathetic, and the chorus, which sings brief verses clearly linked to the Arcadian tradition.

Here, however, the Nordic setting of shooting stars and the night is erased; in its place, there emerges a description of sunny springtime, typical of the Italian Arcadia, where morning light and a soft breeze triumph. Although Calzabigi accepted Comala's destiny and did not replace it with a happy ending, he did find the final description excessively gloomy and replaced it with one of smiling nature just slightly touched by the sweet melancholy of Fingal, who ponders the absence of his beloved.

Nonetheless, it is important to note how the Nordic setting enabled Calzabigi to consider writing a melodrama without a happy ending. Such was the case in both Comala and later in his Elfrida, based on a tragedy by William Mason. By eliminating the Mediterranean setting and embracing this new tradition, the canon could be modified and a serious melodrama could end like a tragedy, without an all- too-often unlikely happy ending as was the tradition in melodrama and as was the case with Calzabigi's Orfeo e Euridice.

In the following years, Calzabigi would become involved in debates on tragedy and on the sublime with some of the most important tragic playwrights in Italy, including Alfieri and Alessandro Pepoli. As for the success and impact of Calzabigi's libretto, Ettore Romagnoli may have been influenced by it when writing the musical accompaniment for a theatrical performance in Siena in It is also possible that Luigi Gordigiani had the libretto in mind when he composed his soprano and alto duet entitled Comala a century later in The popularity of Ossian in melodrama continued without really developing the innovations proposed by Cesarotti and Calzabigi.

Ossian offered a mannered primitivism that could serve as the backdrop for plots based on contested loves and damsels in distress, familiar themes that would live up to the expectations of the melodrama audience. One such example is Calto by Giuseppe Foppa. Giuseppe Foppa was one of the most prolific professional writers for the lyric stage at the turn of the century.

Although his poetry was only mediocre, he always managed to satisfy musicians and company directors alike thanks to the speed with which he wrote and his technical knowledge of libretto structure. Referring to Calto, he calmly stated that he had only had a few days to write the libretto and that he had based it loosely on Ossian, introducing some of his own inventions: "The story is based partly on the poems of Ossian and partly on my own imagination ".

The background events of the drama are taken from Calthon and Colmal and are explained in the first scenes. The audience learns that some time ago Calto was adopted by Duntalmo, who had killed his true father.

Calto secretly married Corimba Colmal in the original and Colama in Cesarotti's translation , Duntalmo's daughter, and with her he had two children. Now, Duntalmo is envious of the condottiere Calto, who has become more popular with the people than he is. Duntalmo thus decides to have Corimba marry someone else. In the second act, Calto sees the shade of his real father, who asks him to seek revenge.

On the ashes of his father, Calto and his companions swear vengeance on Duntalmo. Later, Duntalmo puts Calto and his children in chains, and he discovers that the latter belong to Corimba.

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Duntalmo orders the children to be killed and then decides to kill Calto and Corimba as well. In the third act, an informer tells Duntalmo that as Calto was being led to his execution, a popular revolt broke out and he was freed. Calto then reaches the castle with his followers and takes power. Corimba begs Calto to show mercy to her father, and he agrees not to have Duntalmo put to death, revealing as well that he has saved the children. Faced with all this goodness, Duntalmo repents.

The melodrama ends on a happy note with the protagonists singing a duet accompanied by the chorus. Foppa removed Ossian and the murder of Calthon's brother, Colmar, by Dunthalmo from the text, introducing instead a happy ending, in line with current trends in melodrama. He transformed the plot by eliminating all the deaths and bloody scenes; he also introduced the pathetic element of the children sentenced to death and employed ingredients typical of the "genre serieux", such as the secret marriage and the children in hiding.

And it is for this very reason that his plot managed to win over audiences; by adapting his work to have it fall within the framework of popular genres and to satisfy the expectations of the audience, he was sure to produce something relatively successful. As a result, the following year a work entitled Duntalmo, with musical accompaniment by Luigi Caruso, was performed at the Teatro Argentina in Rome.

Attempts to track down the text or determine the author of the libretto have been unsuccessful; however, considering the summary provided by Grove18, it was probably Foppa's Calto, only with a different title to make it appear to be a new work, a technique that was quite common in the 18th century. In , at the request of the composer Francesco Gardi, Foppa reworked his libretto into a chamber duet, entitling it Calto e Colama.

The plot invented by Foppa would also later serve as inspiration for various ballets. Part of this story has not remained faithful to the original in order to meet present-day tastes in Italian drama and adhere to the prescribed decorum of theatrical performances.

This last statement regarding decorum was rather strange for Venice in , and most likely refers to the fact that the role of Fingal was performed by a mezzo-soprano, Camilla Balzamini. As for the plot, it is quite different from the Ossianic text. Fingal loves Comala, the daughter of Sarno, who is king of the Orkney Islands; Morval, Fingal's father, however, wants his son to marry Morna, and Fingal tries to prevent this wedding from occurring.

Meanwhile, Comala escapes from the Orkneys and arrives in Morven. Morval declares war on Sarno, imprisons Comala and confines Fingal to a cave that is used as a temple. Sarno lays siege on Morven and is about to have a duel with Morval, when Fingal and Comala enter and stop them. Their words instil pity in their fathers' hearts and the two give up their weapons, declare peace and wed Fingal and Comala on the spot.

The tragedy ends with the chorus singing "Trionfi l'imene, trionfi il valor" ["Let marriage triumph, let valour triumph"], which recalls the chorus in Calzabigi's Orfeo e Euridice and introduces yet another touch of 'pruderie' by replacing love with marriage. Malvina, the first melodrama based on this character, came out in The libretto was written by another of the most prolific librettists, Gaetano Rossi, who also wrote Semiramide for Rossini.

In , the above-mentioned Leopoldo Fidanza wrote the libretto Oscar e Malvina to go with music written by Francesco Sampieri. That same year, yet another heroine was chosen as the subject for a melodrama; Aganadeca, written by Vincenzo De Ritis, with music composed by Carlo Saccenti and choreography by Pietro Hus, was performed at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples.

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References have been found regarding a serious musical drama, Clato, by Adriano Lorenzoni see Weitnauer , which was performed in Bologna in with music by Pietro Generali. Many of these libretti must have had a rather limited life-span, for it is difficult to find actual copies of them. By this time, the Ossianic setting had become little more than a pretext, and while the names are those of the main characters of Temora and Carthon, the plot is more similar to that of Calthon and Colmal. The important background events of the story include the fact that Cairba, Ardano's father, killed Clessamorre, the lord of Balclutha in order to have his position.

The bard, Carilo, saved Clessamorre's son, Gaulo, and sent him to be reared and educated by Fingal, whereas Dartula, Clessamorre's daughter, was raised by Cairba. The melodrama begins when Dartula is about to marry Ardano, Cairba's son. At that moment, Gaulo enters seeking to avenge his father's death, and for this he is imprisoned.

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However, Gaulo is set free by his father's friends, who have been urged on by Carilo. Gaulo then challenges Ardano to a duel. They are about to begin the duel when Dartula finds Cairba, who relinquishes power in order to save his son's life. Now, Gaulo can govern Balclutha together with his sister Dartula, Ardano's wife, and general peace prevails.

By this time, the setting had become almost completely detached from the Ossianic poems; in fact, the link to Ossian in this melodrama was now so remote and confused as to be transformed into a stylised exotic setting that the audience associated with some kind of Nordic mythology. In October , the melodrama Fingallo, with musical accompaniment by Antonio Coppola, was performed in Palermo; however, the information provided by Stieger fails to shed light on the name of the librettist.

The setting, on the other hand, is based entirely on Ossian, from the names of the female protagonists, Malvina and Morna, to the banquet scenes and the bards' songs. However, in this Ossianic world, Cammarano constructs a tragic plot inspired by the works of his much-adored Shakespeare and Schiller. Even when he does seem to incorporate elements typical of 18th-century melodrama - in particular from Foppa's Calto - Cammarano alters them, and with the help of a character even more nefarious than Iago, makes them operative in the tragic finale.

At first glance, the plot seems all too obvious. Arturo has secretly married Malvina and has had two children with her; Wortimer, one of the important figures of the court, is in love with Malvina but has been scorned by her and plots his revenge. He persuades Malcom to have Arturo marry the Irish princess Morna. In order to prevent a war from breaking out, Arturo accepts, but on the wedding day he reveals that he is already married to Malvina and that they have two children.


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Malcom, spurred on by Wortimer, reacts violently and has Malvina imprisoned and her children sentenced to death. Later, however, Malcom forgives his son, thanks in part to Morna's mediation, and officially recognises his grandchildren. But at this point, Wortimer kills the two children in their sleep and poisons Malvina, and when Malcom hears of the events, he dies of heartbreak.

Arturo manages to capture Wortimer and drag him before the dying Malvina, over whom he vows his revenge. Cammarano usually wrote libretti that respected traditional metrical patterns, but with this text he began to introduce some slight innovations, for example in the part sung by Morna at the beginning of the second act, where the verses are not isometric.

It may very well have been Cesarotti's text that drove Cammarano to make such changes; in any event, when he began to write Il Trovatore the following year, he inserted some novel elements that were not inspired solely by Verdi innovations which, however, remained unfinished because of Cammarano's premature death. In fact, the departures from traditional metre in Manrico's serenade "Deserto sulla terra" seem very similar to those present in Malvina di Scozia. Ossianic themes remained popular in melodrama, with Fingallo, which was set to music by Francesco Chiaromonte see Stieger19 and performed in in Genoa.

Then, in , Giuseppe Pupino Carbonelli published yet another lyric drama, entitled Oscar. In addition to their influence on the lyric stage, Ossianic themes also entered into the repertoire of Italian tragedy. The first person to write tragedies based on Ossian was most likely Giuseppe Maria Salvi, a monk who felt he had to apologize for having chosen material belonging to pre-Christian mythology.

In , he published a tragedy entitled Calto in Bergamo and another, Svarano, in Genoa. Calto, though including a few extra episodes, more or less follows the plot of Calthon and Colmal; Svarano, on the other hand, includes some new elements not present in the Ossianic poetry. It seems that Salvi wanted to introduce the idea of poetic justice within the framework of the tragedy, and basing his plot on an episode narrated in Cath-loda, he develops it in such a way as to instil a sense of moral satisfaction in the audience. Starno, King of Loclin, has killed Torcul-torno and confined the man's daughter Conban-carglas - an untenable name in Italian metre and thus changed in this tragedy to a more classical name, Almira - to a cave.

She falls in love with Starno's son, Swaran, while her brother Cratmor makes his way to Morven to ask Fingal for help. The two go to Loclin, defeat Starno and free Almira; meanwhile, Swaran is torn between his love for Almira and his devotion to his father, which would prevent him from marrying the young woman. Word arrives that Cratmor has killed Starno in a duel, and after a period of mourning, Swaran will be able to marry Almira.

One criticism people may have had of the Ossianic poems was that Fingal showed too much pity for the cruel Starno. Salvi thus has him die in order to satisfy the expectations of the audience. In contrast, Duntalmo, a tragedy by Giambattista Moreschi, was probably never published. In , again in Venice, a young writer named Luigi Casarini b. The background events of the tragedy are as follows: Clato the protagonist's original name, Moina, was changed grew up in Balclutha, and when Clessammor came here, she was forced to marry him.

However, Clato was in love with Reuda, who challenged Clessammor to a duel. During the battle, Clessammor fell into the river and was believed dead, so now a widow, Clato could marry Reuda. At present, she has two children, one from her marriage with Clessammor, the other from Reuda.

The tragedy begins many years later when Clessammor finally manages to make it back to Balclutha. When he finds Clato, he orders her to return to him, he being her legitimate husband, and threatens to kill both children if she does not do so. Clato seems to succumb to this threat, but as she nears the ship that is supposed to take her away, she draws out a dagger and kills herself.

The tragedy was actually changed by Cesarotti, to whom Casarini had sent the text, and the pathetic story of this ill-fated heroine would later become popular in various ballets. The following year, Colama, a tragedy by Agostino Peruzzi, was published for the first time, with a plot once again based on Calthon and Colmal.

However, at the end of this tragedy, the defeated Dunthalmo seems to agree to the marriage between Calthon and Colmal, but then without warning, he stabs his daughter to death before being killed by the guards. The tragedy, which was reprinted in in a collection of works performed in Venice, came under attack from the editor, who considered Ossianic themes to be unacceptable for tragedy; tragedy, he stated, had to have "strong and natural simplicity", which was lacking both in Ossianic poetry and in Cesarotti's style.

The editor's accusations then moved on to the language used by Peruzzi, which contained various neologisms and French-based words. Linguistic purism had re-emerged, reiterating the beliefs expressed by Borsa in and, as a result, Cesarotti and his followers now became the enemies that had to be defeated. Of greater interest, however, are the tragedies written by a Romantic patriot who had been exiled from Italy because of his political ideas.

Francesco Michitelli published two Ossianic tragedies in , Aganadeca and Dartula. The two tragedies had been written in and then performed in Naples two years later. In the preface to Aganadeca, Michitelli writes: Aganadeca was the first tragedy that I wrote. This poetry was the kind that best matched my feelings and my expressive capabilities. All those completely new images and imaginative descriptions, such frequent apostrophes and all things for the love of glory, savagery and revenge pleased me more than anything else.

And kindled by them, there immediately arose in me the desire to write a tragedy. Of all the tragic deeds sung by the Celtic Bard, I chose the theme of the death of Aganadeca, killed by her father, the fierce Starno, almost in the same way that Danaus killed Hypermnestra. Of course, Alfieri himself had worked on Cesarotti's Ossian, and in this way the two shared a common ground. Alfieri's influence, however, is most evident in the depiction of the tragic characters. Michitelli's Starno, for example, is obsessed by the decline associated with old age and views the young Fingal as the enemy who will rob him of his power, not unlike the melancholy protagonist of Alfieri's tragedy, Saul.

As for the versification, Michitelli tried to avoid some of Alfieri's harshness and remain closer to the model offered by Cesarotti. Also with regard to plot development, one must not take his affirmation of having imitated Alfieri literally he does not, for example, depict Aganadeca's murder on stage, as Alfieri would have done, but instead merely has somebody narrate the event. During this same period, other tragedies based on Ossianic themes emerged. Aside from Fingallo, published by Cesare Rosaglio in , Agandecca was the most popular subject after Francesco Soprani published Aganadeca in , while Carlo Trolli came out with his version of Aganadeca as an historical drama in in Venice.

Tragedies based on the same theme were later written by Silverio Barducci in and by Rodolfo Parravicini in One cannot overlook the role that Ossian's poems had as a source of inspiration for improvised poetry, a tradition that was very common in Italy until the beginning of the 19th century and has been the subject of recent studies.

It was a sort of learned response to the commedia dell'arte and the oral epic tradition. In literary salons, the presence of poets - men and women alike - who could improvise poems of various metrical patterns on the most diverse topics was always highly welcomed. At times, this rhetorical exercise produced full-fledged poems or even tragedies However, records of improvised poetry are difficult to locate, for due to its ephemeral nature, much of it - at times to our benefit - was never printed. One of the most acclaimed female improvisational poets of the second half of the 18th century was undoubtedly Fortunata Sulgher Fantastici , from Leghorn.

Unlike many of her colleagues, she had some volumes of her improvised poems published Evidence of her interest in Ossianic themes goes back to , when she published a poem entitled Catbar vendicato da Morna [Catbar avenged by Morna], based on the poem Fingal. In , she published a book of verse dedicated to Angelika Kauffmann which included La morte di Gruda [The Death of Gruda], this too based on an episode from the first canto of Fingal. A more complete collection from contains these works and two other improvised poems based on Canto III of Fingal, entitled Aganadeca and Fainasilla.

In the Poems of Ossian, pathetic and sentimental elements are circumscribed by the epic nature of the plot and are always linked to a broader sense of loss and solitude, whereas in Fantastici's poems, the heroines become the bearers of external sentimentalism. Such an example is evident in the description of Agandecca's murder by her father in the third book of Fingal. Macpherson's text reads: She came with her loose raven locks. Her white breasts heaved with sighs, like the foam of the streamy Lubar.

Starno pierced her side with steel. The 'ballet pantomime', as ballets that adhered to the theories of Noverre were called at the time, were performed not only during the intervals of melodramas but also at the end of tragedies or comedies. In it, the bond uniting Oscar and Malvina is jeopardised by the suitor Cairbar, who kidnaps the beautiful Malvina. With the help of Fillano, Oscar manages to free himself and recover his wife. It is sold in Japan by Morinaga.

The Viennetta was previously known as Comtessa in Spain , due to a legal problem.


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