The Senegalese migration becomes expression of the concept of gore when migrants show their solidarity to their families, to the extent that they are willing to accept jobs that they would otherwise reject in their country. For example, as L. Among many Senegalese, the migration represents a way to retrace the travels or the exiles of their saints, such as El Hadji Oumar Tall, who promoted the diffusion of the Tijani brotherhood in Senegal.
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He went into exile for several years in the mid-nineteenth century, and then came back regaining, through his social and religious influence, the territories occupied by the French colonial power. The story of Cheikh Amadou Bamba, the founder of the Mouridism, is similar. After being exiled by the French colonizers, he returned to Senegal and founded Touba, the holy city of Mouridism.
In the city fishermen are the ones most actively involved in pirogue migrations.
Contrary to the misleading representations that the media construct on the relationship between fishermen and migration, it may be adequate to answer the following questions: why have the fishermen assumed this central role, not only in the organisation of pirogue travels but also numerically, as migrants? Nguinguiri , has been always characterized by the movement of fishermen who used to undertake distant travels from one country to another.
These travels mainly occurred in the countries overlooking the Central and Eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, from Mauritania to the Congo. Picture 3. Routes of the artisan fisheries. We go to sea for a week or even ten days with pirogues full of ice.
In fact, during the occurrence of this phenomenon it is easier to follow the migratory flow of fish Overa However, what seems more important is that the participation in these events is considered symbolically as the achieving of adult age. Long-distance fishing represents a symbolic stage that marks the beginning of a full-fledged career and the public acknowledgment of the capability to lead a pirogue.
More specifically we refer to the metaphorical meaning applied, for example, to some fishes in order to denote wealth and social standing: the yaboy and the thiouf ; 11 The notion of yaboy is widely used in reference to men; all those who undertake the pirogue travel are yaboys. The travel to the Canary Islands is seen as the means through which the migrant tries to rise from the status of yaboy to that of thiouf.
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In general, the activities of artisan fisheries are characterized by a rigid lifestyle; for most of fishermen, their profession still implies sobriety and the lack of large consuming practices. The proceeds of the artisan fisheries are usually invested in fishing equipment, maintenance and repair of pirogue engines. There has been a gradual shift from investments exclusively directed to fishing activity towards expenditures that are mainly directed to meet social needs and consumption interests.
Moreover, when the news about the first pirogue trips came out, the Senegalese fishermen who were the greater experts of the sea routes, gained recognition and great benefits from their service. In addition, the wooden pirogues were unable to compete with the means available to the large European fishing boats.
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Although this condition concerns many young people, it is perceived even more among the elderly fishermen who have raised their concerns about the possibilities of ensuring enough independence to their children to allow them to create a family. Melman and recalled by M. Diop , appears to subsume the consequences of the social and economic crisis of both the fishing and agricultural sectors.
Within this context, the pirogue migration is not only a livelihood strategy for both individuals and family De Haas but is rather perceived as a cultural phenomenon, as a vehicle to achieve a greater authority and social status, especially for men. To this regard, B.
But in what sense their image is ambivalent? He is seen as an illiterate and astute saver, but also as a crude trader devoted to ostentatious dissipation of assets acquired fraudulently. In the face of the public and flaunted display of their symbols of success new houses, clothes… , the migrants describe Europe as an impenetrable and inhospitable fortress to foreigners seeking work.
This critical reading is however joined by a more famous one that reaffirms the image of a European El Dorado where migrants are seen as gold mines. Far from being static facts, the social representations of the migrant are historical processes that change over time in relation to socio-cultural, economic and political transformations. As far as the practical and symbolic preparation of the venture is concerned, the attention was often centred on the stages before departure.
Le Devoil , On a dark beach, in a cool night without stars, the sea is calm. The inhabitants of the coast, who are still in the arms of Morpheus, do not even suspect what is happening not far from their homes. Reaching Europe aboard a makeshift boat: this is the new emigration trend that is all the rage in Senegal. Le Populaire , Walf , This representation is also emphasized by the description of the other individuals involved. Dressing a T-shirt and a Yankees cap, he is portrayed as an unscrupulous individual who lures his victims.
Picture 4. Cover page, Afrique Citoyenne, n o 13, Picture 5. Afrique Citoyenne, n o 13, p. Le Quotidien , Victims of their good faith.
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Persons driven by the force of desperation. This lie that becomes the pivot around which the events of the story take place, assumes an important role in the characterization of the protagonist. You just have to accept the risk! Many friends of mine have left in pirogue and now they work in Europe. Jihad against the poverty. As far as concerns the word Barsakh , it means the Netherworld; it is the heaven devoted to all those people who die in a holy-war.
In this case the two parts of the phrase are placed in an otherworldly dimension there or there. Babakar: Staring at Europe is not a mistake but it should to be done with reasonableness. The Senegalese people are dreamers. Luckily today there are less people who spend time drinking ataya tea and longing for a 4x4 or a rich foreign woman. Stefano: Are you a dreamer? B: Well […] yes. I am a dreamer. S: [considering the idea of travelling and the importance that Babakar gives to roads, I ask him teasingly]. And so, would you wish to migrate or to go along roads that you do not know?
B: I would not go along roads that I do not know […] I would travel to an unknown place but only because I am motivated and pushed to go there driven by my interests. I am not interested in going to France or Spain […] I am interested in travelling by night to cross borders!
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For EU citizens the borders between the member states are just signs of an historical memory. In the conversations with the repatriated migrants the narration of the travel emerges as a means of understanding their role within the social fabric. The drive to migrate towards foreign destination countries is not necessarily tied to economic reasons. Mobility symbolises a social practice of projection of a future self away from home Gardner and perhaps, as critically maintained by J. Ifekwunigwe with reference to boat migrations, the contemporary Mediterranean expression of the historical and persistent devaluation of African life as illustrated by the conceptual frame of the Black Atlantic Gilroy The boundaries hinder the desire to discover and to experience.
The barriers to knowledge make our subalternity.
Poems about Migration
Aliou, repatriated from Mauritania, bus driver in Dakar, Dakar, Yassine, UN Mozambiquen officer, Dakar, In particular, following the experience of repatriation, the travel seems to assume a ritual meaning. Although I had met him since my arrival in May , only a week before my departure, after months of reciprocal acquaintance and friendship, Malik unexpectedly revealed me his experience as pirogue migrant.
He told me about his travel to the Canary Islands. I left because I could not do anything else: I did not have chance to work; I could not marry. I tried twice to emigrate by pirogue. I, or rather, we all lined the coast, crossing the ocean, almost up to the Strait of Gibraltar where the two seas meet, and the hope begins!! But I remember those days very well.
The trip with pirogue can last up to twenty days. I found myself crying for other people, throwing people overboard […] seeing others die! During that trip I saw and I have known many things […] in a single life!! When I arrived to the Canary Islands I was not myself anymore. People in Tenerife do not tell their real names. After I was repatriated: the first time in Saint Louis and the second one in Mauritania. The change that I have witnessed is not only terminological, but also semantic and symbolic. I am speaking about all those Senegalese people who live in Europe and come back here.
When they return to Africa these people are always surrounded by young pretty girls whom they could easily conquer because these girls think that the Europeans have a lot of money! Do you get what I am saying?! That is the way wherein the Europeans think […] there are people who behave like that. There are many girls who are forced to leave [Senegal] to stay with the Europeans. The Europeans do not support the construction of schools and so on […] they are only interested in keeping their money and taking care of their interests.
In particular, the young Dakarois , the so-called cityboys , are blamed for the withdrawal of some domestic and convivial habits, and for the flaunted display of a Parisien way of speaking. Dakar is different, Dakar is not Senegal! The bourgeois lives there. When people are dining you could see husbands reading the newspaper, calling their wives and discussing what is going on in the world! If they were here, they could not complain if suddenly in their plates there is nothing more to eat.
But there [in Dakar] it is different because everyone has his own plate. You can recognise the cityboys at a distance […] by how they dress, by how they walk. They want to experience the European comfort. For this reason, they spend their weekly salary!! The Europeans behave in the same way! But there are also many Mauritanians, Moroccans […] Lebaneses!!
He seems to be even more critical, coming to equate the Modou modou to foreign Lebanese and Moroccan traders who are generally disliked due to their growing economic extension in most of the strategic commercial areas of the capital city. Moreover, there are always more Modou modou who come back [to Senegal] and invade the market of Sandaga. It is a shame […] because they do not pay respect!! By now in Senegal the majority of vendors are foreigners: Chineses, Moroccans, Lebaneses […] and the Modou modou are not different!!
Pape, shopkeeper of Rue Petavain, Dakar, Gardner maintains, the migrants, the narratives about them as well as the images about foreign countries often do not foster only transformations in the sending and destination contexts, but become metaphors for thinking about these social and cultural changes, which characterize the local contexts themselves.
They are not crazy kamikaze but people who strive for a social recognition that is always more difficult and hampered by the socio-economic transformations characterizing contemporary Senegal. This transformation, occurring at discursive and social level, coexists with media representations in particular TV representations that reproduce discordant images in the relationship between the migrants and their contexts of destination.
In fact, an idealized representation of the latter endures with a less heroic image of the emigrants who appear as socially excluded outsiders in both origin and destination societies. We suggest that a greater understanding may spring up from the examination of the relationship between mobility, space and imagination degli Uberti b. Major attention should be devoted to the analysis of the role played by the imagination in the social construction of the desire to migrate as well as of the representations of Europe as real or imaginary destination of the migratory travel.
The dominant social representation of Europe needs to be disaggregated and rethought through a deeper understanding of the processes of social interaction from which it springs. Abu-Lughod, L. Appadurai, A. Becker, C. Diop dir. Bellagamba, A. Benga, N. Bertoncello, B. Bjarnesen, J. Cristina Casado, who manages the Office of Refugee Resettlement program at the Shenandoah Valley Juvenile Center, wrote in a postscript of the page book that the children had behavioral or criminal histories and experienced trauma in their home countries.
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