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To ensure continued comfort in the afterlife, rich Egyptians have models placed in their tombs of the necessary servants and utensils. The centre of power in Egypt moves to the interior, with the capital at Thebes rather than Memphis. Wrestlers are painted on the walls of an Egyptian tomb, performing most of the holds and falls still in use today.

A mathematical papyrus, copied out by Ahmes, an Egyptian scribe, offers some of the world's first exam questions. The biblical account suggests that around this period the Hebrews are a captive tribe in Egypt. The Hyksos, arriving from the middle east, win control of Egypt and rule for a century. Egyptian tombs include paintings of a kind to help the occupants in the next world, whether in the Book of the Dead or on the walls.

The New Kingdom begins in Egypt, bringing the most spectacular of all the dynasties. The god Osiris, in his tall white headdress, represents in Egyptian tombs the idea of resurrection in the next world. A copper trumpet is in use in Egypt, forerunner of the brass instruments of the orchestra. The Jews adopt a long-established Egyptian ritual - the circumcision of boys. Go to Circumcision in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages 1 ed.

The temples of Karnak and Luxor, in ancient Thebes, introduce the massive stone architecture of column and lintel. Hatshepsut takes power in Egypt, and is unusual in being a female pharaoh. Go to Hatshepsut c. Rich Egyptian households have the latest luxury items, small bottles of coloured glass to hold cosmetics. Go to glass in Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World 1 ed. The clepsydra, or water clock, is developed in Egypt. The pharaoh Akhenaten creates a new capital city on the Nile at Tell el Amarna. The Amarna letters, an invaluable collection of cuneiform tablets, are written at the court of the pharaoh Akhenaten.

The Amarna tablets contain extensive correspondence between the Akhenaten government in Egypt and subject princes in Phoenicia. One of the regular sitters to the court sculptor Thutmose is the pharaoh's wife, Nefertiti. Go to Nefertiti active 14th century bc in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. With the return to favour of the god Amen, the young Tutankhaten's name is changed to Tutankhamun. Go to Tutankhamun died c. The young Egyptian pharaoh, Tutankhamun, dies and is buried in a suitable tomb.

Ramses II, perhaps the greatest of Egypt's pharaohs, begins a reign of sixty-six years. An indecisive battle between the Hittites and the Egyptians, at Kadesh, stabilizes the frontier between the two empires. Ramses II creates a spectacular temple in his own honour at Abu Simbel.

Libyans in the Egyptian army take control of the nation and rule as pharaohs. Go to pharaoh in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. The earliest surviving sundial is in use in Egypt. Go to sundial in A Dictionary of Astronomy 2 rev ed. The king of Cush, or Nubia, conquers down the Nile to the sea, establishing the Cushite dynasty.

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Egyptian scribes develop an abbreviated version of hieroglyphs for everyday use, in the script known as demotic 'for the people'. Go to hieroglyphs in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. The Egyptian city of Memphis falls to an Assyrian army, soon to be followed by Thebes. The Babylonians defeat an Egyptian army at Carchemish, but do not press on into Egypt. Isis, who is able to restore her husband Osiris after he has been chopped into pieces, becomes one of the most popular deities in Egypt.

The Persians defeat an Egyptian army at Pelusium and then capture Memphis. Go to Darius I c. Forces of the Delian League assist the Egyptians in a successful revolt against their Persian rulers. The Greeks suffer a major reverse when their fleet is trapped on the Nile and destroyed by the Persians.

The Greek historian Herodotus visits Egypt and provides, among many other details, an account of the process of mummification. Go to Herodotus c. Alexander the Great's army arrives in Egypt and the Persian governor of the province rapidly surrenders. In Memphis Alexander sacrifices to Apis, a sacred bull, and is crowned pharaoh by the priests. While in Egypt, Alexander founds Alexandria — the best known of the many towns he establishes to spread Greek culture. Go to Alexandria in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

Alexander travels far into the desert, to a famous oracle of the sun god Amon or Amon-Re at Siwah, where the priest recognizes him as the son of the god. Go to oracle in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. The spread of Greek rule by Alexander introduces the Hellenistic age, which will last for three centuries. Go to Hellenistic Age —30 bc in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. In the carve up of Alexander the Great's empire, Ptolemy wins Egypt and founds the Ptolemaic dynasty — with himself as the pharaoh Ptolemy I.

Ptolemy manages to acquire Alexander the Great's corpse, to lend authority to his rule in Egypt. Alexander's corpse, hijacked by Ptolemy, becomes a sacred relic in Alexandria. Ptolemy begins to transform Alexandria into a centre of Greek culture, founding his famous 'museum' and library. Euclid, teaching at the museum in Alexandria, writes what becomes Europe's standard textbook on geometry. The Jewish community of Alexandria coins the word diaspora for Jews living far from Israel. Go to diaspora in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. The Alexandrian school of medicine develops an alarming form of clinical anatomy — human vivisection.

A great lighthouse, subsequently one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is built on the island of Pharos, off Alexandria. The , scrolls in the library at Alexandria are listed in a catalogue, which itself runs to scrolls. The organ, using a mechanical device to pump air through a set of musical pipes, is invented in Alexandria by Ctesibius. The first alchemists, working in Alexandria, are also the world's first experimental chemists.

Go to alchemy in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. Ptolemy III issues the Decree of Canopus, the earliest known in the Ptolemaic series of public decrees inscribed in stone in two languages and three scripts. The text of the Rosetta stone is chiselled into a black basalt slab in the three scripts hieroglyphic Egyptian, demotic Egyptian, and Greek. Go to Pompey —48 bc in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Julius Caesar, now fifty-two, meets the year-old Cleopatra in Alexandria and they become lovers. Cleopatra acquires a new co-ruler and husband in the form of another young brother, now Ptolemy XIV.

Julius Caesar leaves Alexandria to travel with his army by the land route back to Italy, through Turkey. Cleopatra appoints Caesarion, now aged three, her co-ruler and heir. Cleopatra's brother and co-ruler, Ptolemy XIV, dies — probably at her command. Cleopatra persuades Mark Antony to execute her sister Arsinoe, thus removing her last potential rival in the Egyptian royal family.

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Mark Antony spends the winter with Cleopatra in Alexandria. Cleopatra gives birth to twins and calls them Alexander and Cleopatra. Cleopatra gives birth to another son of Mark Antony's and calls him Ptolemy Philadelphus. In a spectacular ceremony known as the Donations of Alexandria, Mark Antony distributes the eastern Roman territories between Cleopatra, her eldest son Caesarion and his own three children.

Octavian arrives in Egypt with an army, and holds Cleopatra a prisoner in her palace in Alexandria. Hearing that Cleopatra is dead false news, as it turns out , Mark Antony commits suicide in Alexandria. Go to Antony, Mark 82—30 bc in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Cleopatra commits suicide, applying a poisonous asp to her breast,. The Egyptians declare Caesarion to be their pharaoh, but it is not long before he is executed by Octavian - bringing to an end the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.

Octavian annexes Egypt as a Roman territory and takes back to Rome the vast treasures of the Egyptian pharaohs. Go to Augustus 63 bc—ad 14 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. With the annexation of Egypt, the entire Mediterranean falls under Roman control. Vespasian, proclaimed emperor by his troops in Alexandria, is the survivor among this year's four emperors.

Hero, a Greek scientist in Alexandria, devises various forms of steam engine. Go to Hero of Alexandria c. PG , Paris: Migne, The translation was originally published in Constantinus Porphyrogenitus. De vita et rebus gestis avi sui Basilii Macedonis.

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  • In PG , Combefis , a French Dominican, did ground-breaking work in Greek patrology. Saint Petersburg, Cuniliati, Fulgentius. Universae theologiae moralis accurata complexio. Madrid, Damian, Peter. In PL vols. Daremberg, Charles, and Edmond Saglio. Paris: Hachette, Decahors, E. Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider, eds.

    Stuttgart: J. Metzler, Meditationes de prima philosophia. Cited by standard book and chapter numbers. Dindorf, Wilhelm, editor and translator. Descriptio Graeciae. Paris: Firmin-Didot, The often-reproduced illustrations, by the architect and engraver Le Pautre, include captions in French and Latin. Does, Theodor van der Theodorus Dousa , trans. Georgius Acropolita The edition and translation of Does was first published in In Annae Comnenae Caesarissae Alexiadem notae historicae et philologicae.

    Annae Comnenae Alexiadis libri XV. Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae Graecitatis. Ducange, Charles du Fresne, trans. Chronicon paschale. Ludwig August Dindorf, ed. Ducange's translation was first published in Ducange, Charles du Fresne, translator and annotator. Ioannes Cinnamus 12th c. Epitome rerum ab Ioanne et Alexio Comnenis gestarum. The translation was first published in Ducange, Charles, trans.

    Joannes Cinnamus. Historiarium libri septem. Ducrue, P. Dudo Decanus Sancti Quintini. De moribus et actis primorum Northmanniae ducum. Dunglison, Robley. A Dictionary of Medical Science. Philadelphia, Duval, Jacques. Paris: Isidore Liseux, Original edition Rouen, The work is principally in French; but a few passages — those potentially most shocking — are in Latin.

    Egger N. Latinitas viva: tabulae imagineae numero nonaginta. Opus epistolarum Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Erasmus, cited from North Holland ed. Colloquia Familiaria. Holzhammer Mainz, Horatiana prosopographeia. Amsterdam, Fabre, Pierre Jean. Myrothecium spagyricum sive pharmacopoea chymica. Toulouse, Forcellini, Egidio. Totius latinitatis lexicon. Padua, Fracastoro, Girolamo Opera omnia. Fraser, Angus. The Gypsies. Oxford: Blackwell, Frisius, Andreas 17th-c. Dutch printer. Prefatory letters. De arte gymnastica.

    Fuss, Jean Dominique, trans. Ioannes Laurentius Lydus. Lydus was a sixth-century government official and antiquarian living in Constantinople, a contemporary of Justinian. Pars prior Febr. Gentian, Hervet, trans. Theodore Balasmon 12th c. Commentaria in canones sanctorum apostolorum, conciliorum, et in epistolas canonicas sanctorum Patrum. PG, vol. Gerard of Cremona also known as Gerard of Sabionetta or Sabloneta, 13th c.

    Liber canonis medicinae cum castigationibus Andreae Bellunensis. Gesner, Johann Matthias, translator. Luciani Samosatensis opera. The translations through page are by Tiberius Hemsterhuis; the rest by Gesner , the renowned classical scholar, Weimar librarian, and friend of Johann Sebastian Bach. The original edition containing Hemsterhuis' and Gesner's translations was published in Gevaerts, Jan Caspar Casperius Gevartius , text. Peter Paul Rubens, illustrations. Pompa introitus honori serenissimi principis Ferdinandi Austriaci Hispaniarum infantis.

    An extraordinarily sumptuous, lavishly illustrated festival book. The Flemish humanist Gevaerts worked with Rubens, his close friend, in framing conceptually the elaborate iconography of the archduke Ferdinand's "joyous entry"; Rubens made the drawings from which the book's engravings were executed.

    Gildemeister, Johann. Scriptorum Arabam de rebus Indicis loci et opuscula inedita. Giraldus Cambrensis.

    Gossrau, Gottfried Wilhelm, ed. Publii Virgilii Maronis Aeneis. Quedlinburg and Leipzig, Graesse, J. Grellmann, Heinrich Moritz Gottlieb. Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm, and others. Leipzig Hagen, Friedrich Heinrich von der. Hahn, Johannes David. Oratio de usu venenorum in medecina.

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    • Utrecht, Hardy, E. Plinii Caecilii Secundi epistulae ad Traianum imperatorum cum eiusdem responsis, edited, with notes and introductory essays. Page citations refer to Part I of the volume, unless otherwise noted. Commentarius de Ioanne Lydo. Hawley, Richard Maddock. Morborum definitiones. Edinburg, Herwerden, H. Nova series, vol. Hessler, Franciscus, tr. Murray, Hoeven, Cornelis Pruys van der. De historia medicina e. Historia morborum. Hoeven, J. Philosophia zoologica. Holste, Lukas Lucas Holstenius.

      Montpellier, Hutten, Ulrich von , and others. Epistolae obscurorum virorum. Ideler, Julius Ludwig. Meteorologia veterum Graecorum et Romanorum. Jamieson, John. An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language. Edinburgh, John Bostock and Henry Riley, translators. Kant, Immanuel. Kants Werke. Band I. Georg Reimer: Berlin, Katterfeld, T. Kepler, Johannes. Frankfurt: Kiel, Cornelis. Etymologicum Teutonicae linguae. Kircher, Athanasius and Johann Stephan Kestler. Physiologia Kircheriana experimentalis. Kestler, who was Kircher's student assistant, compiled this work from descriptions of experiments, concoctions, and stunts found througout the works of the irrepressible polymath.

      Koenig, Georg Ludwig, editor and annotator.

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      Junii Juvenalis sexdecim satirae. Lambeck, Peter Petrus Lambecius , trans. Georgius Codinus. Lambeck was a renowned scholar and court historian to the Austrian emperor.

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      His edition and translation of Codinus was first published in Lapide, Cornelius a. Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram. Leges Cracov. Franciscus Piekosinski, ed. Gesammelte Werke. Georg Heinrich Pertz, ed. Hannover, Lemaire, Nicolas Eloi, ed. Quinti Horatii Flacci quae exstant omnia opera. Bibliotheca classica Latina. Linacre, Thomas, trans.

      Galeni Pergameni Asiani excellentissimi semper post unicum Hippocratem medici ab omnibus habiti opera. Basil: Froben, Species plantarum. Vienna, Zagreb: Academia scientiarum et artium Slavorum Meridionalium, Leiden: E. Brill, Vacciolarum nativarum historia. Kiel, Lyttleton, George William. Maffeius, Iohannes Petrus, S. Magri, Domenico.

      Hierolexicon sive sacrum dictionarium. Rome, Maiansius, Gregorius, ed. Manutius, Paulus. Epistulae selectae. This is one of a handful of versions believed closest to the lost original, which had probably been dictated by Marco to a prison cellmate. It is undoubtedly among the oldest extant versions of the work see Yule 1, 90; 1, Marcus Paulus de Venecia de consuetudinibus et conditionibus orientalium regionum. Francesco Pipino. Gouda, Madrid: Testimonio, Citations are to book and chapter number; the edition has no page numbers. It was in this Latin version, executed during Marco's lifetime probably in by the Franciscan friar and chronicler Francesco Pipino — and in versions derived from it — that the work was most often read up to the 19th century see Yule I.

      Georgius Helmreich Teubner: Leipzig, Massoch, Stephen. Practical Teacher of the Latin Language. Baltimore, Matthiolus, Petrus Andreas. Epistolarum medicinalium libri quinque. Melanchthon, Philip Opera quae supersunt omnia. Halle, Turin, The volumes are not paginated; references are to the names of sections of the works or individual maps. Mercuriale, Girolamo Hieronymus Mercurialis. Original edition: Venice, The celebrated illustrations are by the Italian artist and classicist Pirro Ligorio Meurs, Johannes van Johannes Meursius , translator and annotator.

      De administrando imperio. Original edition Meurs was a Dutch classical scholar, unfairly labeled a "pedant" by the haughty Joseph Justus Scaliger. Meyer, Heinrich, ed. MHG -- Monumenta Germaniae historica. Milton, John. The Works of John Milton. New York: Columbia University Press, Munich: Beck, New York: Latin Press Printing, A journal published twice a year in Copenhagen, Morelli, Cyriacus.

      Fasti novi orbis. Muench, Aloisius Joseph, S. David Ruhnken. Newman, John Henry. Dissertatiunculae quaedam critico-theologicae. Newton, Isaac. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. Thomas Le Seur. In , the modern-day village of Uqayribat was founded by a group of farmers who migrated kilometers northwest from their hometown of Palmyra to cultivate and settle the place.

      On 3 September the town was regained by the Syrian Arab Army. However, on 9 September , the army lost large parts of the town. In , a large mosaic was discovered in Uqayribat which belongs to an early Byzantine church. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Town in Hama, Syria. Retrieved American Geographical Society. Palmyrena: A Topographical Itinerary.